Lidepla-inglish lexikon

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a — (konekti) 1) to (aim, direction)

go a shop — go to the shop

lai a dom — come home

returni a janmalanda — return to one's native land

a oli taraf — in/to all directions

2) to (dative case)

a yu — to you

a may amiga — to my friend

shwo a swa — say to oneself

me ve rakonti a yu om to — I'll tell you about that

(cf. "versu")




aa — (exklami) ah, oh (an exclamation of understanding, recognition)

Aa, es yu! – Ah, it's you!

Aa, me samaji. — Oh, I see.

Written with two letters for distinction from the conjunction "a" (but pronounced the same way)

See also: ah




abat — (kwo) abbot




abisma — (kwo) abyss




abnegi — (zwo) abnegate, deny oneself; renounce

lu abnegi-te fuming — he gave up smoking

abnega — (kwo) abnegation, self-denial




aboli — (zwo) abolish

abola — (kwo) abolishment




abrevi — (zwo) abbreviate (words); abridge (a book), curtail (a narrative)

abreva — (kwo) abbreviation

abrevi-ney — (kwel) abbreviated, abridged

abrevi-nem (abrevem) — (komo) in abbreviated form

abrevitura — (kwo) acronym




abrupte — (kwel) precipitous, abrupt; brusque; sudden, abrupt




absente — (kwel) absent, not present

absensia — (kwo) absence




abses — (kwo) abscess




absolute — (kwel) absolute

absolutem — (komo) absolutely

absoluta — (kwo) (the) absolute




absorbi — (zwo) absorb

Gunsa absorbi ta. — His work absorbed him.

absorba — (kwo) absorption




abstrakti — (zwo) abstract

abstrakta — (kwo) abstraction

abstrakta-ney (abstrakte) — (kwel) abstract




absurde — (kwel) absurd

absurda — (kwo) absurd

absurditaa — (kwo) absurdity




abundante — (kwel) abundant

abundantem — (komo) abundantly, amply, generously

abundansia — (kwo) abundance




abyas — (kwo) habit, custom

pa abyas — through habit

hev abyas — to be accustomed, to be wont, to be in the habit of

abyas-ney — (kwel) habitual

abyas-nem — (komo) habitually (see also "pinchan")

abyasi — (zwo) get accustomed/used (a koysa — to smth), get into the habit of

mah koywan abyasi a koysa — to accustom smb to smth

abyasi-ney (abyasen) — (kwel) accustomed, used (a koysa — to smth)

abyasen a mushkila — accustomed to difficulties




acha — (kwo) axe




adapti — (zwo) adapt, adapt oneself

adapta — (kwo) adaptation

adapter — (kwo) adapter

adaptibile — (kwel) adaptable

adaptibilitaa — (kwo) adaptability




adar — (loko-komo) thither, there, that way

bu go adar — don’t go there

(Origin: a+dar)

Syn.: dar




adi — (zwo) add

ada — (kwo) addition

adiwat — (kwo) additive, addition (smth added)

adike — (kwel) additional

(cf. “aditi”)




aditi — (zwo) add (math.), add up, tot up

adita — (kwo) addition (math.)




administri — (zwo) administer (manage, conduct)

administra — (kwo) administration (administering)

administrasion — (kwo) administration (managers)




admiral — (kwo) admiral




admiri — (zwo) admire

admira — (kwo) admiration

admirival — (kwel) admirable

admirer, admiri-sha — (kwo) admirer




admiti — (zwo) admit (grant entrance, whether into a place or into the mind)

admita — (kwo) admission, admittance

noadmitibile — (kwel) inadmissible




adopti — (zwo) adopt

adopta — (kwo) adoption




adres — (kwo) address (location or its description)

adresi — (zwo) address, accost

adresing — (kwo) addressing, address (act)




adulte — (kwel) adult

adulta — (kwo) adult

adulto — (kwo) adult male

adultina — (kwo) adult female




adyoo — (exklami) Goodbye! Adieu!

shwo adyoo, fai adyoo – to say goodbye

al fai adyoo — at parting

(kwo) farewell




adyutanta — (kwo) aide de camp, adjutant




aflui — (zwo) flow towards, rush towards, stream towards

afluisa — (kwo) flow, flood (of tide), rising tide; influx, inflow

afluisa e defluisa — flow and ebb

(Origin: a+flui)




afsos — (kwo) regret, pity

pa afsos — regrettably, sadly, unfortunately

afsosi — (zwo) regret, be sorry about

afsos! — (exklami) alas! it is a pity!

afsos-ney, afsosival — (kwel) regrettable, sad, unfortunate




afte — (konekti) after; in (at the end of)

afte yu — after you

afte to — after that

un afte otre — one after another

afte vidi — having seen

afte tri dey — in three days

afte un ora — in one hour

aften — (taim-komo) afterwards, later on, subsequently

Nu nadi ke aften ve ye meno gwer in munda. — We hope that afterwards (in future) there will be fewer wars in the world.

Nu he diskusi se olo aften. — We have discussed this all later on.




aftechi — (zwo) eat with, eat smth after drinking

Ta pi un glasakin vodka e aftechi bay marinaden gurka. — He had a glass of vodka with pickled cucumber.

(Origin: afte+chi)




agenda — (kwo) agenda




agiti — (zwo) agitate (also to stir up public interest in a cause)

agiti-ney (agiten) — (kwel) agitated, excited

agita — (kwo) agitation (for the meaning “stirring up of public interest” one can use also “agitasion”)




agni — (kwo) fire

agnibeda — fire (occurrence of fire in a certain place)

agnibrigada — fire-brigade

agninka — (kwo) spark

fai agninka — (zwo) spark

agni-ney — (kwel) aflame; fiery

agnisi — (zwo) burn up, fire up; sear

agni-luma — (kwo) blaze, glow

agni-ston — (kwo) flint; gunflint




agra — (kwo) (ploughed) field, tillage

agralanda — (kwo) countryside

agralande — (kwel) rural

agrajen — (kwo) peasant (also “kisan”)

agrare — (kwel) agrarian




agravi — (zwo) aggravate (cf. “vexi”)

agrava — (kwo) aggravation




agresi — (zwo) aggress; feel aggression

agresa — (kwo) aggression

agresive — (kwel) aggressive

agreser — (kwo) aggressor




agude — (kwel) sharp, acute

agudisi — (zwo) sharpen




ah — (exklami) ah (expresses strong emotions)

fai ah — (zwo) gasp with surprise




ahaa — (exklami) aha




ahak — (kwo) lime




ahfi — (zwo) hide, conceal

ahfi swa — hide oneself

ahfi-geim — hide-and-seek

ahfilok — (kwo) hiding-place

ahfi-shem (ahfem) — (komo) hidingly, in a hiding way

ahfishil — (kwel) reserved, reticent, secretive

buahfi-ney (buahfen) — (kwel) unconcealed, undisguised

ahfi-go — (zwo) slink, sneak, steal

ahfi-kan — (zwo) peep, watch furtively




ahir — (loko-komo) hither, here, this way

Lai ahir. — Come here.

(Origin: a+hir)

Syn.: hir




ahmak — (kwo) fool

Syn.: stupida




ahuki — (zwo) hitch, hook, couple, link, catch

May palto ahuki a naga e tori. — My coat caught on a nail and tore.




aida — (exklami) let's go, come along (invitation to go somewhere)

Aida a riva! — Let’s go to the river!

Aida fo yabla! — Let’s go to get some apples!




aika — (modus-komo) quite, rather

aika hao — quite well




aira — (kwo) air

aira kastela — castles in the air

airaportu — (kwo) airport

airameil — (kwo) airmail

airisi — (zwo) aerate

airavati — (zwo) air (expose to air)




ais — (kwo) ice

ais-lenge — ice-cold

ais-ney — (kwel) ice, icy,

aiskrem — (kwo) ice cream

aisifa — (kwo) icing up




aivi — (kwo) ivy




ajibe — (kwel) queer, weird, odd

Syn.: strane, astoni-she, nopinchan




ajile — (kwel) agile, alert, brisk

do peda ajile — swift-footed, light-footed

do menta ajile — with agile mind, quick-witted

ajilitaa — (kwo) agility, alertness, swiftness, legerity

ajilisi — (zwo) brisk up




ajorni — (zwo) adjourn, put off, defer (cf. "deri")

ajorna — (kwo) adjournment, postponement, reprieve




ajusti — (zwo) adjust, regulate, set

ajusti kloka, ajusti radio — adjust the clock/watch, adjust the radio




akademia — (kwo) academy

akademiayuan — (kwo) academician

akademike — (kwel) academic




akauda — (kwo) the sign "@"

(Origin: "a"+kauda)




akaunta — (kwo) account (a registry of pecuniary transactions; a subscription to a service)




aklami — (zwo) acclaim, praise enthusiastically, cheer

aklama — (kwo) acclaim, acclamation




akompani — (zwo) accompany

Ob yu akompani me a dom? – Will you see me home?

akompana — (kwo) accompaniment




akorda — (kwo) chord (combination of pitches sounded simultaneously)




akre — (kwel) acrid, caustic, pungent




akseleri — (zwo) accelerate

akselera — (kwo) acceleration

Syn.: mah-kway, fa-kway




aksenta — (kwo) accent

aksenti — (zwo) accent, accentuate

See also: emfasi




aksepti — (zwo) accept

aksepta — (kwo) acceptance

aksepter — (kwo) acceptor




akses — (kwo) access

aksesi — (zwo) access, have access to

aksesibile — (kwel) accessible




aksham — (kwo) evening

klok pet de aksham — (at) five o’clock in the evening

sey aksham — this evening, tonight

manya aksham — tomorrow evening

akshamfan — (kwo) evening meal; supper




aksia — (kwo) share (finance)




aksidenta — (kwo) accident (in an ill sense), mishap

aksidenta-ney (aksidente) — (kwel) accident-related




akti — (zwo) act

akta — (kwo) act; action (smth done)

fai akta fo/kontra koysa — take action for/against smth

akting — (kwo) action (functioning; effect)

aktive — (kwel) active

aktivenesa — (kwo) activity (the state or quality of being active)

aktivitaa — (kwo) activity

aktivisi — (zwo) activate

aktivisa — (kwo) activation

aktivista — (kwo) activist

ko-akti-sha — (kwo) accomplice




aktor — (kwo) actor

aktoro — (kwo) male actor

aktorina — (kwo) actress




aktuale — (kwel) topical, of current importance, actual




aktum — (kwo) act (theater; legal document)




akumuli — (zwo) accumulate

akumula — (kwo) accumulation




akusi — (zwo) accuse, inculpate, charge with, indict

akusa — (kwo) accusation




akwa — (kwo) water

akwa-ney — (kwel) water; aqueous

akwish — (kwel) watery




akwalwo — (kwo) waterfall

(Origin: akwa+lwo)




akwarium — (kwo) aquarium




akwiri — (zwo) acquire

akwira — (kwo) acquisition




al — (konekti) when doing smth, while, at, under (simultaneity, circumstances)

al suryachu — at dawn

al ke me kuki — while I’m cooking

al bakdao — on the way back

al klosi-ney dwar — behind closed doors, with doors closed

al sey halat — under these circumstances

al un-ney kansa — at first sight

al shwo om se — when speaking about it

«Hao», ela shwo al smaili. — «OK», she said smiling.

al nau — currently, at the present moment




ala — (kwo) wing




alarma — (kwo) alarm

aira-alarma — air-raid warning

alarmi — (zwo) alarm

alarmifi — (zwo) get alarmed, uneasy

alarmi-ney — (kwel) alarmed




alauda — (kwo) lark, skylark




albatros — (kwo) albatross (sea bird)




album — (kwo) album




alee — (kwo) lane, walk, path (in a garden, park, etc., generally between rows of trees)




alegre — (kwel) merry; cheerful; lighthearted; lively

alegritaa — (kwo) merriment; mirth; gaiety; liveliness




alfabet — (kwo) alphabet

segun alfabet — alphabetically




alga — (kwo) alga(e): see-weed, kelp, dulse, etc.




algebra — (kwo) algebra




algoritma — (kwo) algorithm




aliansa — (kwo) alliance

politike aliansa — political alliance

alianser — (kwo) ally




alibi — (kwo) alibi




alif — (kwel) tame




aligi — (kwo) attach, append

aligi fail a leta — attach a file to the letter

(Origin: a+ligi)




alkali — (kwo) alkali

alkali-ney — (kwel) alkaline




alkohol — (kwo) alcohol




almu — (kwo) alms




along — (konekti) along

go along gata — go along the street

along riva — along the river




also — (unisi) therefore, so, then; accordingly; consequently




altaimi — (zwo) update

(Origin: al+taim+i)




alternative — (kwel) alternative

alternativa — (kwo) alternative




alterni — (zwo) alternate, take turns

alterna — (kwo) alternation

alterni-yen, alternem — (komo) alternately, by turns




amasi — (zwo) knead




amator — (kwo) amateur

amator-ney — (kwel) amateur




amaxi — (modus-komo) at most, not more than

to ve duri amaxi un ora — that will last one hour at most




amba — (kwo) amber




ambi — (inplas-kwo, kwel) both

Nu ambi pri sey kitaba. —We both like this book.

Ambi sista pri plei kun doga. — Both sisters like to play with the dog.




ambigue — (kwel) ambiguous, equivocal

ambiguitaa — (kwo) ambiguity




ambision — (kwo) ambition

ambisionful — (kwel) ambitious, full of ambition




ambrela — (kwo) umbrella




ambulansia — (kwo) ambulance




ambush — (kwo) ambush

fai ambush — make/lay an ambush




amen — (exklami) amen




Amerika — (kwo)America (continent)

Amerika-ney — (kwel) American (of or pertaining to the Americas)

Amerika-jen — (kwo) American (an inhabitant of the Americas; cf. “USA-jen”)

Norde Amerika — North America




amerikan — (kwel, kwo) American (of or pertaining to the USA or the American culture; American man)

fama-ney amerikan poeta — famous American poet




amiga — (kwo) friend

amigo — (kwo) male friend

amigina — (kwo) female friend

amiga-ney (amige), amigalik — (kwel) amiable, affable, friendly

amigitaa — (kwo) friendship, amity




amini — (modus-komo) at least

to ve duri amini un ora — that will last one hour at least




amper — (kwo) ampere

sto amper — 100 amperes

shi mikroamper — 10 microamperes




amplituda — (kwo) amplitude




amusi — (zwo) amuse, entertain

amusi swa — amuse oneself

amusa — (kwo) amusement

amusi-she — (kwel) amusing




an — (konekti) indicates object of action

fai gola an koysa – take aim at smth

darba an tabla – a strike on the table

wuli an luna — howl at the moon

kansa an dwar — a glance at the door

lopi kun sikin an koywan — to run at someone with a knife




analis — (kwo) analysis

analisi — (zwo) analize




analoge — (kwel) analogous

analogem — (komo) analogously

analoga — (kwo) analogue

analogitaa — (kwo) analogy, analogousness




ananas — (kwo) pineapple




anar — (kwo) pomegranate (fruit)

anarbaum — (kwo) pomegranate (tree)




anarkia — (kwo) anarchy

anarkike — (kwo) anarchic

anarkista — (kwo) anarchist




anatomia — (kwo) anatomy




anchun — (kwel) safe, secure

anchuntaa — (kwo) safety, security




anekdot — (kwo) anecdote, joke, funny story




anglosaxon — (kwo, kwel) Anglo-Saxon




angula — (kwo) angle; corner

agude angula — acute angle

tupe angula — obtuse angle

rekte angula — right angle

triangula — triangle

rektangula — rectangle

turni angula — turn (round) the corner




animal — (kwo) animal




animi — (zwo) animate, endow with life; enliven, give animation to

animi-ney — (kwel) animated

anima — (kwo) animation

shwo kun anima — speak with animation

animasion — (kwo) animation ((making) cartoon)




anis — (kwo) anise




anjel — (kwo) angel

anjellik — (kwel) angel-like, angelic




anka — (kwo) anchor

fai anka — (zwo) anchor

mah-lwo anka — cast/drop anchor




ankur — (kwo) sprout, shoot

ankuri — (zwo) sprout, spring up




anonime — (kwel) anonymous




ansambla — (kwo) ensemble




anshi — (zwo) hint

ansha — (kwo) hint




antena — (kwo) antenna




antilopa — (kwo) antelope




antonim — (kwo) antonym




antra — (kwo) gut

antratot — (kwo) intestine




anubav — (kwo) experience

anubav-ney jen — experienced person, man of experience

anubavi — (zwo) experience (cf. "trajivi")




anunsi — (zwo) announce; give notice of

anunsa — (kwo) announcement




anus — (kwo) anus




aparat — (kwo) apparatus




apari — (zwo) appear (come into existence; to become visible — cf. “sembli”)

apara — (kwo) appearance




aparte — (kwel) separate, detached, apart (from others)

apartem — (komo) apart

apartem fon otres — apart from the others




apeli — (zwo) appeal (but not “to be attractive”)

apela — (kwo) appeal




apena — (komo) hardly, scarcely, barely




apetit — (kwo) appetite




apliki — (zwo) apply (put on, upon, or to; put to or adapt for a special use; put into action)

aplika — (kwo) application

apliki-ney (apliken) — (kwel) applied

apliken fisika — applied physics




aplodi — (zwo) applaud

aploda — (kwo) applause, clapping




apoga — (kwo) support, prop, rest

apogi — (zwo) prop, lean, rest

apogi on tabla — lean agaist the table




april — (kwo) April (also mes-char)




aprobi — (zwo) approve, give approbation to

aproba — (kwo) approbation




apropoo — (konekti-komo) apropos; by the way

Apropoo, me haishi bu he lekti sey kitaba. — By the way, I have not yet read this book. Apropoo sey kitaba, it es ya muy interes-ney. — Apropos of this book, it is really interesting.




arabeska — (kwo) arabesque




arabi — (kwel, kwo) Arab; Arabic; Arabic language




aranji — (zwo) arrange (plan or prerare for; bring about or come to an agreement; settle)

aranji mita — make an appointment

aranja — (kwo) arrangement




arda — (kwo) earth

ardagloba — (kwo) globe (the planet Earth)




ardanuta — (kwo) peanut

(Origin: arda+nuta)




arena — (kwo) arena




arendi — (zwo) lease, rent, charter

arenda — (kwo) lease

arendaguan — (kwo) rental agency




aresti — (zwo) arrest, make a prisoner

aresta — (kwo) arrest, custody




argenta — (kwo) silver




argumenta — (kwo) argument (statement put forth as proof, reason)




arhiduka — (kwo) archduke




arigatoo — (kwo) thanks, thank you

Syn.: danke, shukran




arivi — (zwo) arrive (at destination, at a certain place)

ariva — (kwo) arrival

Ant.: departi




arka — (kwo) arc; arch (cf. “raduga”)




arkaike — (kwel) archaic




arkitekter — (kwo) architect

arkitektura — (kwo) architecture




arku — (kwo) bow (weapon)

Arkuman — (kwo) Sagittarius




arma — (kwo) weapon

stal-arma — cold steel

agni-arma — fire-arms

armas — (kwo) arms, armament

armisi — (zwo) arm

armisa — (kwo) arming

arma-dun — (kwo) loophole, embrasure




armee — (kwo) army

armeeyuan — (kwo) military man, serviceman




aroma — (kwo) aroma

aroma-herba — aromatic herbs

aromaful — (kwel) full of aroma, aromatic, fragrant or sweet-smelling

aromike — (kwel) aromatic (chem.)




arosi — (zwo) moisten, wet, water (with any liquid)

aroser — (kwo) watering-pot




arpa — (kwo) harp




arsenal — (kwo) arsenal




arta — (kwo) art

artista — (kwo) artist




artifisiale — (kwel) artificial (man-made; false; unnatural — cf. “jengun-ney”)




artikla — (kwo) article (a part of speech in some languages)

(cf. “makala”)




artileria — (kwo) artillery




asada — (kwo) siege

asadi — (zwo) siege, besiege




asembli — (zwo) assemble: collect, bring together (people, materials, etc.)

asembla — (kwo) assemblage, assembly; meeting, gathering

generale asembla — general meeting/assembly

desasembli — (zwo) disassemble, take to pieces

Syn.: jami




asendi — (zwo) go up, ascend, mount

asendi sulam — mount a ladder/stairway

avion oltaim asendi-te — the plane kept ascending

prais asendi — prices come up

asenda — (kwo) ascension

Syn.: go uupar

Ant.: desendi




aserti — (zwo) assert, aver, claim, state

aserta — (kwo) assertion, claim, statement




asfalta — (kwo) asphalt




asilum — (kwo) asylum, sanctuary

Syn.: refuja




asimili — (zwo) assimilate (physiol. and fig. — cf. "similisi")

asimila — (kwo) assimilation




asimut — (kwo) azimuth




asla — (kwo) donkey, ass




aspekti — (zwo) look, appear

aspekti fatigi-ney — look tired

aspekta — (kwo) aspect, view, sight, look, appearance

fai aspekta — pretend, affect, feign




aspiri — (zwo) aspire, desire eagerly, long for, aim at, seek after

aspira — (kwo) aspiration, striving




asteroida — (kwo) asteroid (astron.)




astoni — (zwo) astonish, amaze

fa-astoni — (zwo) be amazed, be astonished, marvel, wonder

astoni-she, astonival — (kwel) astonishing, marvelous

astoni-shem — (komo) astonishingly

astoni-shem jamile gela — astonishingly beautiful girl

astona — (kwo) amazement, astonishment




astronomia — (kwo) astronomy

astronomier — (kwo) astronomer

astronomike — (kwel) astronomical




ataki — (zwo) attack, assail, assault

ataka — (kwo) attack, assault

chu-ataka — (kwo) sally, sortie




atarafi — (kwo) move aside, draw aside; step aside

(Origin: a+taraf+i)




ateni — (zwo) attain, reach, achieve

ateni e sobrepasi — catch up and overtake

lopi-ateni — catch up by running

raki-ateni — catch up by car (or other vehicle)

atena — (kwo) achievement, attainment, accomplishment




atenta — (kwo) attention

fai nul atenta om koysa — pay no attention to smth

atenti — (zwo) be attentive to, heed, mind, pay attention to

atenta-ney (atente) — (kwel) attentive, alert

atenta-nem (atentem) — (komo) attentively, closely, carefully.

(cf. “chauke”)




atlas — (kwo) (anat., geog.) atlas




atletika — (kwo) athletics

atletike — (kwel) athletic




atma — (kwo) soul

atma-ney — (kwel) of soul

dusatma-ney — (kwel) bad souled, base




atmosfera — (kwo) atmosphere




atom — (kwo) atom

atom-ney — (kwel) atomic




atrakti — (zwo) attract

atrakta — (kwo) attraction

atraktive — (kwel) attractive




audi — (zwo) hear; listen

Me bu audi nixa. — I don’t hear anything.

Audi ba! — Listen!

hao-audi-ke musika — a music that is good to hear

bu-gwo-audi-ke — unheard-of

auda — (kwo) hearing (auditory faculty)

auding — (kwo) listening; audition

audibile — (kwel) audible

audike — (kwel) auditory, acoustic

audibilitaa — (kwo) audibility

audisens — (kwo) sense of hearing

audimogsa — (kwo) hearing ability

fa-audi — (zwo) be heard, be audible

finaudi — (zwo) listen to the end

auder — (kwo) (telephone) receiver

See also: slu




audio — (kwo, kwel) audio

rekordi audio — record audio




augusto — (kwo) August (also mes-ot)

in augusto — in August




aur — (kwo) ear

aurganda — (kwo) cerumen




aus — (konekti-komo) 1) out (of) (outward movement)

pren kalam aus posh — take a pencil out of the pocket

Lai aus! — Come out!

2) (made) of (material), out of

botela aus glas — bottle made of glass, glass bottle

Me he zwo palas aus shamba. — I made a palace out of the room.

ausen — (konekti-komo) outside of, on the outside, beyond the limits of

ausen dom — outside the house

Me jivi ausen urba. — I live out of town.

Sedey ye frosta ausen. — It freezes outdoors.

Sey dwar bu ofni fon ausen, sol fon inen. — This door does not open from outside, only from within.

ausen-ney — (kwel) outer, external

ausenklaida — (kwo) overclothes

ausen-taraf — (kwo) the outside

ausen-munda — (kwo) the outer world




ausjivi — (zwo) survive, remain alive

ausjiving — (kwo) survival, surviving




auskati — (zwo) cut out, carve out




auskavi — (zwo) dig out, dig up




auskupi — (zwo) redeem; ransom

auskupa — (kwo) redemption, redeeming; ransom




auslanda — (kwo) foreign countries

in auslanda — abroad

auslanda-ney — (kwel) foreign, of foreign countries

auslandajen, auslander — (kwo) foreigner, a person from a foreign country (cf. "gariba")




ausmorti — (zwo) die out, become extinct

(Origin: aus+morti)




auspren — (zwo) take out, pull out, extract

(Origin: aus+pren)




ausspiri — (zwo) exhale, breathe out

ausspira — (kwo) exhalation, outward breath

Ant.: inuspiri




ausyusi — (zwo) wear out

ausyusa — (kwo) wear and tear

(Origin: aus+yusi)




autentike — (kwel) authentic (genuine, real)

autentikitaa — (kwo) authenticity




auto — (kwo) automobile, car, motor-car




automat — (kwo) automatic machine, automaton, automat

automatike — (kwel) automatic

automatikem — (komo) automatically

automatisi — (zwo) automatize

automatisa — (kwo) automatization




autor — (kwo) author




autoritaa — (kwo) authority (power to influence or persuade resulting from knowledge or experience — cf. "mahta")




autostop — (kwo) hitch-hiking

fai autostop — hitch-hike




avan — (komo) forward, ahead (in space or time)

Avan, sempre avan! — Forward, always forward!

Kan avan, bu kan bak. — Look forward, don't look back.

Go avan, bu turni. — Go ahead, don't turn.

Treba mah kloka un ora avan. — One should set the clock one hour ahead.

avanen — (konekti-komo) ahead (of) (at what place?)

avanen oli — ahead of everybody

avanen kolona — ahead of the column

Lu es yo dalem avanen. — He is already far ahead.

May kloka es pet minuta avanen. — My watch is 5 minutes fast.




avane — (kwel) front, fore

avanpatas — forelegs

avana — (kwo) front, facing side (also “avantaraf”)




avanpasi — (zwo) pass ahead of, outstrip




avansi — (zwo) advance, go forward; further, promote

avansa — (kwo) advance, advancement




avantaja — (kwo) advantage




avare — (kwel) avaricious, miserly, greedy

avaritaa — (kwo) avarice, greed

avarnik — (kwo) miser, niggard




aventura — (kwo) adventure




avenu — (kwo) avenue (broad street)




avide — (kwel) greedy, avid

aviditaa — (kwo) greed, avidity

avida (avido, avidina) — (kwo) greedy person




avion — (kwo) airplane




avos — (komo) hopefully, maybe, perhaps, with luck we may

pa avos — on the off-chance, at random, in a hit-or-miss fashion




axa — (kwo) axis, axle

axike — (kwel) axial




ay — (exklami) ouch




azure — (kwel) azure




ba — gramatika marks imperative

Nu go ba! — Let us go!

Manya yu hev skola. Tayari ba yur leson! — Tomorrow you have classes. Prepare your lesson!

Ta lai ba! — Let him come!

(cf. "hay")




badal — (kwo) cloud

gro-badal — big cloud

swate badal — black cloud

badal-ney dey — cloudy day




bade — (kwel) bad; evil (cf. “dushte”)

bu bade — not bad

baditaa — (kwo) evil

lucha de haotaa e baditaa — struggle of the good and the evil

badifi (fa-bade) — (zwo) become worse, deteriorate




bagaja — (kwo) luggage




bagula — (kwo) heron




bahana — (kwo) pretext, excuse

bahani — (zwo) pretext

bahani-yen ke — under the pretext of




bahmal — (kwo) velvet




bait — (kwo) byte




baji — (zwo) ring, resound; play (a musical instrument); strike (about the clock)

baji pa dwar — ring at the door

Hu-ney fon zai baji? — Whose phone is ringing?

baji piano — play piano

baji gana pa gitara — play a song on the guitar

baja — (kwo) ring, ringing

Me audi-te baja pa dwar. — I heard a ring at the door.

bajika — (kwo) doorbell, buzzer




bak — (komo) 1) back (in space or time), backwards

Go avan, bu go bak. — Go ahead, don't go back.

Mata wud yao ke suy kindas lai bak a ela. — The mother would like her children to come back to her.

Gai pon bak olo ke yu pren. — You should put back everything that you take.

al bakdao — on the way back

bakmuvi — move back

dai bak — give back

Treba mah kloka un ora bak. — One should set the clock one hour back.

2) ago

dwa yar bak — two years ago

Gro-longtaim bak ye rega. — Once upon a time (long ago) there lived a king.

baken — (konekti-komo) behind (at what place?)

baken dom — behind the house

Me bu vidi surya nau: it es baken badal. — Now I don't see the sun: it is behind the cloud.

Wen me lai a shulin, me bu dumi om problema. Me lyu li oli baken in urba. — When coming to the forest, I do not think about problems. I leave them all behind in the town.

May kloka es pet minuta baken. — My watch is 5 minutes slow.

fon baken dom — from behind the house




bakak — (kwo) frog




bake — (kwel) rear, back, hind

bakpatas — hind legs

baka — (kwo) the back (back side, reverse side, or area behind) (also “baktaraf”)




bakra — (kwo) goat

gin-bakra (bakrina) — female goat

man-bakra (bakro) — male goat




bakshish — (kwo) baksheesh




bakteria — (kwo) bacterium




bal — (kwo) ball (dance)




balada — (kwo) ballad




balansa — (kwo) balance, equilibrium (cf. "vaka")

balansi — (zwo) balance, maintain equilibrium; counterpoise, counterbalance

balansing — (kwo) equilibration, balancing

balansi-ney (balansen) — (kwel) balanced




balbati — (zwo) gurgle

ruchey balbati — brook gurgles




baldakin — (kwo) baldaquin




balena — (kwo) whale




balet — (kwo) ballet




balja — (kwo) bulge

balji — (zwo) bulge




balka — (kwo) log, beam; rafter, balk

balka-dom — loghouse




balkon — (kwo) balcony




balon — (kwo) balloon




balsam — (kwo) balsam, balm




bambu — (kwo) bamboo




banana — (kwo) banana

bananaplanta — (kwo) banana-plant




banda — (kwo) 1) band (strip; a part of spectrum); ribbon;

2) band (group)

banda de frekwensa — frequency band




bandaja — (kwo) bandage

bandaji — (zwo) bandage




bandana — (kwo) bandana




bandita — (kwo) bandit




banduk — (kwo) rifle




bangi — (zwo) burst




bani — (zwo) bathe

bani swa — bathe oneself

baning — (kwo) bath (bathing)

banidom (baniguan) — (kwo) bath-house, baths

banishamba — (kwo) bathroom

banipen — bathtub




banka — (kwo) bank (financial institution)

banker — (kwo) banker

bankayuan — (kwo) bank clerk




banket — (kwo) banquet (ceremonial dinner)




bao — (kwo) bag

beybao — (kwo) rucksack

handabao — (kwo) handbag




baobaba — (kwo) baobab




bar — (kwo) bar (pub, tavern)




barak — (kwo) barrack




barana — (kwo) fence




barba — (kwo) beard

barba-ney man — bearded man




barbare — (kwel) barbarian, barbarous

barbara — (kwo) barbarian

barbaritaa — (kwo) barbarism; barbarity




barela — (kwo) barrel

barelakin — (kwo) keg, small barrel / cask




bari — (zwo) bar, block, obstruct

daobarika — (kwo) road barrier

barilok — (kwo) enclosured place




bariera — (kwo) barrier




barometra — (kwo) barometer




baron — (kwo) baron / baroness

barono — (kwo) baron

baronina — (kwo) baroness




barsuk — (kwo) badger




bartan — (kwo) household vessel; tableware

woshi bartan — wash the dishes

bartanlemar — (kwo) dresser (cupboard or set of shelves for dishes or kitchen utensils)




barut — (kwo) gunpowder

barut-depo — powder magazine




basa — (kwo) base

basi — (zwo) base

basike — (kwel) basic

basikem — (komo) basically

sinbasa-ney — (kwel) groundless, unfounded




basar — (kwo) market, marketplace, bazaar; fair

basar-ekonomia — market economy

basar-teatra — a fair theatre




bashan — (kwo) speech (oration)

bashani — (zwo) orate, give a speech




basina — (kwo) basin (geog., geol.)




basketa — (kwo) basket

basketabol — (kwo) basketball




basta — (komo) enough

nu hev basta pan — we have enough bread

sauna bu es haishi basta garme — it is not yet hot enough in the sauna

(exklami) that will do! enough!

Basta! Me bu yao audi nixa om to. — Enough of that! I do not want to hear anything about it.

See also: sufi-shem




baston — (kwo) staff, stick; crosier




basu — (kwo) bass (low sound)

shwo pa basu — speak/say in low voice

basu-ney — (kwel) bass

basu-ney vos — bass voice




bat — (unisi) but

Me hev kitaba bat me bu yao lekti. — I have the book but I don't want to read.




batali — (zwo) fight, battle

batala — (kwo) fight, battle

handa-batala — hand-to-hand fighting

batalakin — (kwo) skirmish




batalion — (kwo) battalion




bataria — (kwo) battery




batata — (kwo) sweet potato




bati — (zwo) beat (hit or strike repeatedly)

bater — (kwo) bat (club); beater

(cf. “darbi”)




baum — (kwo) tree




bavul — (kwo) suitcase




bay — (konekti) 1) by, with, by means of (a means or tool)

skribi bay kalam — write with a pencil

lai bay avion — come by airplane

bay forsa — by force

bay to ke yu zwo — by what you do

ofensi bay bu shwo danke — to offend by not thanking

2) by (doer or author)

se es zwo-ney bay me — this is done by me

kitaba bay Mark Twen — book by Mark Twain




baya — (kwo) bay (nautical)




bayonet — (kwo) bayonet




bebi — (kwo) baby

bebi gari — perambulator, baby carriage




beda — (kwo) misfortune, distress, trouble, disaster (cf. "disasta")




bedlam — (kwo) bedlam




beduin — (kwo) bedouin




begin — (zwo) begin, commence

Nu begin ba! — Let’s begin!

beginsa — (kwo) beginning

in beginsa — at the beginning

beginsa-ney — (kwel) initial, original

ribegin — (zwo) recommence

Syn.: starti




beje — (kwel) beige




bekon — (kwo) bacon




belka — (kwo) squirrel




belta — (kwo) belt (band)

piga belta — leather belt




bencha — (kwo) bench; pew




bensin — (kwo) benzine, petrol, gasoline




bereta — (kwo) beret




beri — (kwo) berry




berna — (kwo) bear




bes — (kwo) devil (as a half-animal creature, not Satan, not the chief one)

See also: diabla




besbol — (kwo) baseball




bestia — (kwo) beast

bestialik — (kwel) bestial, brutish

Syn.: animal




beton — (kwo) concrete (building material)




bey — (kwo) back (the rear of body); backrest

stula bey — back of chair

stan al bey versu koywan — stand with one's back to smb

beybao — (kwo) rucksack




Bharat — India (also "India")




bi — (zwo) be (is — es, was — bin, will be — ve bi)

Gai bi honeste. — One should be honest.

Bi hao! — 1) You are welcome! (a reply to thanking); 2) Bless you! (after smb's sneezing); 3) Good luck! (when parting)

bia — (kwo) being




bichi — (zwo) despise, disdain, disparage, scorn

bicha — (kwo) contempt, scorn, disdain




bifoo — (konekti) before (in space or time)

bifoo dom — before the house

bifoo festa — before the holiday

bifoo ke lu en-somni — before he fell asleep

bifoo olo — first of all

Woshi handas bifoo chifan! — Wash your hands before eating!

En-stan ba bifoo me. — Stand up before me!

bifoo-ney — (kwel) former, previous, one-time

pa bifoo-ney taim — once, in former times

bifooen — (taim-komo) formerly, previously, before

Laojen oftem shwo ke bifooen olo bin pyu hao kem nau. — Old people often say that formerly everything was better than now.

Bifooen nu jivi in otre urba. — Previously we lived in another town.

pa bifooen — in advance, beforehand




biftek — (kwo) beefsteak




bigari — (zwo) spoil

bigara — (kwo) spoiling, spoilage




bigudi — (kwo) hair-roller




bik — (kwo) beak

biki — (zwo) peck

bika — (kwo) peck

biking — (kwo) pecking




bikam — (zwo) become

Ob yu yao bikam leker? — Do you want to become a physician?

Lu bikam-te fama-ney kway. — He quickly became famous.

Sun ela bikam mata. — She will become a mother soon.




bikini — (kwo) bikini




bikos — (unisi) because




bil — (kwo) bill, invoice




bildi — (zwo) build

bildi dom — build a house

bilda, bilding — (kwo) building (act)

bildura — (kwo) building (structure)

bildilok — (kwo) building site




bileta — (kwo) ticket




biliar — (kwo) billiards




bilion — (kwo) trillion, a million millions, 1012




bin — was, were (past tense from "bi")

Me bin dar pluri ves. — I have been there several times.




biologia — (kwo) biology

biologike — (kwel) biological

biologier — (kwo) biologist




bira — (kwo) beer

biraguan — (kwo) beerhouse




birka — (kwo) birch




bisikla — (kwo) bicycle (also "baik")




biskwit — (kwo) biscuit, cookie




bisnes — (kwo) business (commercial activity)




bit — (kwo) bit (computing)




bitum — (kwo) bitumen




blada — (kwo) blade (of a knife, sword; of an oar, propeller)

dwa-blada-ney arma — double-edged weapon




blage — (kwel) blessed, connected with God's grace; beneficial

blagitaa — (kwo) grace (religion); beneficence




blami — (zwo) blame, condemn, censure

blama — (kwo) blame, censure

(cf. "shatami")




blan — (kwel) white

blantaa — whiteness




blesi — (zwo) bless

blesa — (kwo) blessing, benediction




bli — (konekti-komo) near, nearby, beside, close to

bli may dom — near my house

bli klok char — around 4 o'clock

Ela zai sidi-te bli. — She was sitting beside.

bli-ney — (kwel) near, nearby, neighbouring

See also: sirke




blik — (kwo) catchlight, flare (reflection of light)




blin — (kwo) pancake




blinde — (kwel) blind

blinditaa — (kwo) blindness

blinda — (kwo) a blind person

blindisi — (zwo) blind; dazzle

blindisi-she — (kwel) blinding




blise — (kwel) close, near, nearby

blisem — (komo) closely

blisitaa — (kwo) closeness, nearness, proximity; affinity

blisejen — (kwo) one’s near and dear

blislok — hereabouts

blisifi (fa-blise) — (zwo) approach, come closer

blisifi a koysa — approach smth, come close to smth

blisisi (mah-blise) — (zwo) draw/bring nearer

blisi — (zwo) approach/bring nearer




bliza — (kwo) lightning




blog — (kwo) blog




blok — (kwo) block; unit (a part of a mechanism)




bloki — (zwo) block, blockade

fa-bloki — (zwo) become blocked; get stuck

debloki — (zwo) unblock, deblock




blu — (kwel) blue

blutaa — (kwo) blue

klarblu — (kwel) light blue, sky blue




blusa — (kwo) blouse




boa — (kwo) boa




bobina — (kwo) bobbin, spool, reel




bobra — (kwo) beaver




boh — (kwo) god

bohina — (kwo) goddess

boh-ney, bohlik — (kwel) divine

bohmata — (kwo) mother of god

boh-blama — (kwo) blasphemy

fai boh-blama — commit blasphemy




bol — (kwo) ball

snegabol — (kwo) snowball

bolkalam — (kwo) ballpoint pen




bolta — (kwo) bolt (metal fastener)




bomba — (kwo) bomb

bombi — (zwo) bomb, bombard

bombing — (kwo) bombardment, bombing

bombiavion, bomber — (kwo) bomber (aircraft)

bombi-sha — (kwo) bomber (person)




bona — (kwo) bean




bonbon — (kwo) bonbon, candy, sweet




borda — (kwo) border (outer edge; frontier), brink; edge; board (of ship)

pa borda de abisma — at the brink of the abyss

bay pamaborda — with edge of one’s hand

lingwa borda inter jenmin — language borders between peoples

stata borda — the state border

fule til borda — full to the brim

bordi — (zwo) border (on), adjoin

bordi-she — (kwel) adjoining, next, adjacent




bori — (zwo) bore, drill

boring — (kwo) boring

borer, boritul — (kwo) borer (tool)

trabori — (zwo) drill through, perforate




borsta — (kwo) bristle, stubble

borsti — (zwo) bristle




borya — (kwo) woven mat




bota — (kwo) boat

botajen — (kwo) boatman




botela — (kwo) bottle




boxa — (kwo) box (container)




boxi — (zwo) box (strike with fists)

boxing — (kwo) boxing

boxer — (kwo) boxer




boy — (kwo) boy




boyar — (kwo) boyar(d)

boyarina — (kwo) boyarynia, boyar’s wife




bracha — (kwo) arm




brai — (zwo) roar, bellow

braisa — (kwo) roar, bellow




brancha — (kwo) branch




brandi — (kwo) brandy




brash — (kwo) brush (tool)

brashi — (zwo) brush

brashing — (kwo) brushing




brata — (kwo) brother

bratalik — (kwel) brotherly

May ko-bratas do kalam. — My co-brethren of the quill.




bratason — (kwo) nephew (brother's son)

(Origin: brata+son)




brave — (kwel) brave, gallant, stalwart, dashing

bravnik — (kwo) bold fellow, daring fellow, dare-devil




bravo — (exklami) bravo

Bravo gro! — Bravissimo!




brecha — (kwo) breach (opening, gap, tear, rupture)




brein — (kwo) brain




brek — (kwo) brake

breki — (zwo) brake, apply a brake

breking — (kwo) braking




breve — (kwel) brief, concise

brevem — (komo) briefly, in a few words




brida — (kwo) bridle

bridi — (zwo) bridle

nobridi-ney — (kwel) unbridled, unruly

nobridibile — (kwel) indomitable




brig — (kwo) brig




brigada — (kwo) brigade

agnibrigada — fire-brigade




brij — (kwo) bridge (card game)




brik — (kwo) brick




brili — (zwo) shine, glitter, glow

brili-she — (kwel) brilliant, shining, shiny

brila — (kwo) shining, glitter, brilliance

brilika — (kwo) spangle

debrilifi — (zwo) lose its lustre, grow dim




briliante — (kwel) brilliant (glorious, superb, wonderful)

Syn.: gro-hao, magnifike




bringi — (zwo) bring

go bringi koysa — go to fetch smth

lopi bringi koysa — run for smth, run to fetch smth




brisa — (kwo) breeze (of wind)




brova — (kwo) eye-brow, brow




bru — (zwo) brew (prepare liquor)

bruing — (kwo) brewing




brum — (kwo) broom

brumi — (zwo) sweep (with a broom)

bruming — (kwo) sweeping




brun — (kwel) brown




brutale — (kwel) brutal

brutalitaa — (kwo) brutality

Syn.: kruele (cruel), ferose (fierce, ferocious)




bu — (syao-gramatika) not (negation)

Me bu yao go adar. — I don't want to go there.

Tak, bu kontra-nem. — So, not otherwise.

Se es buevitibile. — This is inevitable.

Bu go adar! — Don't go there!

See also: non, bye




Buda — (kwo) Buddha

budisma — (kwo) Buddhism




bufal — (kwo) buffalo




bufeta — (kwo) buffet (a counter or sideboard from which food and drink are served or may be bought)




bugundey — (kwo) day free from work, day off, rest-day

(Origin: bu+gun+dey)




buhao — (kwel, komo) not good, bad; badly

sta buhao — feel unwell

(Origin: bu+hao)




bujeta — (kwo) budget




buketa — (kwo) bouquet (bunch of flowers; specific scent)




bulba — (kwo) bulb




bulbul — (kwo) nightingale




bulevar — (kwo) boulevard




buli — (zwo) boil

buli-she akwa — boiling water

buli-ney milka — boiled milk

buling — (kwo) boiling




bulyon — (kwo) broth, bouillon




bumbar — (kwo) bumblebee




bunte — (kwel) variegated, many-coloured, motley




bure — (kwel) gray-brown




burjua — (kwo) bourgeois

burjua-ney — (kwel) bourgeois




burnus — (kwo) burnous




burokratia — (kwo) bureaucracy

burokratike — (kwel) bureaucratic




buroo — (kwo) bureau




bursa — (kwo) exchange (a place for trading, such as a stock exchange)




bus — (kwo) bus (coach)

bus-stopika — (kwo) bus stop

busyuan — (kwo) ticket collector (in bus)




bush — (kwo) bush, shrub




bushel — (kwo) bushel (unit of volume)




busta — (kwo) bust (head and shoulders of body; woman's bosom)




buta — (kwo) boot

tasmi (fai) butas — lace up one’s boots

gaobuta — (kwo) high boot

rolibutas — (kwo) roller skates/blades




buton — (kwo) button (fastener; device meant to be pressed; bud)

florbuton — flower bud

presi buton — press the button

buton de jaketa — button of jacket

mausbuton — a mouse button

butoni — (zwo) button

butondun — (kwo) buttonhole




buy — (kwo) buoy




bye — (gramatika) negative imperative particle

Bye go adar! — Don't go there!

Boh bye lasi! — God forbid!

Syn.: bu, bu...ba




byen — (kwel) convenient; comfortable; handy, easy-to use; opportune

es muy byen — it's very opportune, it comes in handy

nobyen-taim-ney — ill-timed

byentaa — (kwo) convenience; ease, handiness

flat do oli byentaa — apartment with all conveniences




chabi — (zwo) chew

chabing — (kwo) chewing, mastication

chabiguma, chabika — (kwo) chewing gum




chapa — (kwo) hoe, mattock




chapta — (kwo) chapter (section in a book)




char — (kwanto) four (4)

charfen

un charfen — one forth

tri charfen — three fourths

charfen, charfenka — (kwo) quarter

charple — (kwel) quadruple

charshi — forty

charsto — four hundred

char-ney — the fourth

char-nem — fourthly




chardi — (kwo) Thursday




charma — (kwo) charm (appeal, attraction — cf. "jadu", "talisman")

charmi — (zwo) charm (seduce, fascinate)

charmaful — (kwel) charming




chati — (zwo) chat, babble, chatter

chata — (kwo) chat, babble, chatter




chauki — (zwo) beware (of), be on one’s guard against, take care

chauki doga! — beware of dogs!

chauka — (kwo) caution, wariness, vigilance, alertness

chauka-stepa — precautionary measures

chauka-ney (chauke) — (kwel) cautious, watchful, wary, vigilant, alert

chauka-nem (chaukem) — (komo) cautiously, warily, vigilantly

buchauke — (kwel) incautious, imprudent

nochauke — (kwel) foolhardy, reckless, desperate




chaure — (kwel) wide, broad

chaurem — (komo) broadly, widely, wide

chauritaa — (kwo) breadth, width

chaurifi (fa-chaure) — (zwo) widen (become wide or wider), broaden

chaurisi (mah-chaure) — (zwo) widen (make wide or wider), broaden

chauri — (zwo) widen (tr./intr.)




chay — (kwo) tea

chayguan — (kwo) tea room, tea house

chayvati — (zwo) tea

chayvati koywan — to take smb to tea




chek — (kwo) cheque, (bank-) check, receipt (written acknowledgement)




cheki — (zwo) check (verify; inspect)

cheka — (kwo) check (inspection; verifying)




cherpi — (zwo) draw liquids, scoop (out); (fig.) to take, borrow

cherpika — (kwo) scoop




chi — (zwo) eat

chi masu — eat meat

hao-chi-ke fan — a tasty food

chi sabahfan — have breakfast

chi deyfan — have a midday meal

chi akshamfan — have evening meal/supper

chibile — (kwel) edible

chia — (kwo) eating

syao chia — snack

chiwat — (kwo) eats, food

chifan — (zwo) meal, have a meal

chifanshamba — dining room

chifansa — (kwo) meal

mah-chi — (zwo) feed

jen-chier — (kwo) cannibal, man-eater

chitul — (kwo) eating tool (e.g. fork, spoon, knife, chopsticks)




chibuk — (kwo) chin




chihi — (zwo) sneeze

chiha — (kwo) sneeze

laute ek-chiha — a violent sneeze

chihing — (kwo) sneezing; catarrh

mah-chihi-she — (kwel) sternutatory




chinara — (kwo) plane (tree of the genus Platanus)




chipe — (kwel) cheap

chipenesa — (kwo) cheapness, low prices

Ant.: guy




chiriki — (zwo) twitter, chirp

chiriking — (kwo) twitter, chirp, chirping




chitan — (kwo) pond




chiza — (kwo) spoon

chaychiza — (kwo) teaspoon




chokolat — (kwo) chocolate




chori — (zwo) steal, thieve

bechori koywan — to rob smb

chora — (kwo) theft

chori-sha, chorer — (kwo) thief

chorishil — (kwel) thievish




Chosen — (kwo) North Korea




chou — (kwel) stinking, foul, fetid




chu — (zwo) go out, leave, exit; issue (from); ooze out; come out, be issued

lu chu shamba — he left the room

sudor chu on luy fas — the sweat stood out on his face

chu dwar — go out of the door

chusa — (kwo) going out, leaving, withdrawal; exit, way out; outlet

chudao — (kwo) way out

otre chudao yok — there is no other way out

chudwar — (kwo) exit door

chuwat — (kwo) issue (smth issued)

mah-chu — (zwo) issue (smth); utter

ta mah-chu un strane suon — she uttered a strange sound




chuf — (kwo) tuft (cluster of elongated strands, as of yarn, hair, or grass)




chukanda — (kwo) beet, beetroot

chukandasup — (kwo) beet soup, borscht




chunauta — (kwo) challenge, defiance

chunauta-ney (chunaute) — (kwo) defiant

chunauta-nem (chunautem) — (kwo) defiantly




chuyshu — (zwo) boast, brag

chuyshu-ke, chuyshushil — (kwel) boastful, vainglorious




chyen — (kwel) shallow

chyenlok — (kwo) ford, wade; shoal, sandbank




dabe — (unisi) in order to, in order that, so that

Me shwo a yu dabe yu mog samaji me. — I speak to you in order that you can understand me.




dacha — (kwo) dacha, summer house




dadu — (kwo) bet, wager

fai dadu — (zwo) bet, wager

fai dadu kun koywan— bet with smb

fai dadu om koysa — make a bet about smth

fai dadu pa shi dolar — make a bet of 10 dollars




dafni — (zwo) inter, bury

dafna — (kwo) interment, burial, funeral




dafta — (kwo) exercise book, notebook




dai — (zwo) give

daisa — (kwo) giving

dai bak — (zwo) give back




daklis — (kwo) threshold




dale — (kwel) far, distant, remote

dalem — (komo) afar

fon dalem — from afar

dalitaa — (kwo) distance (a considerable amount of space), expanse, remoteness

fa-dale (dalifi) — (zwo) become more remote

mah-dale (dalisi) — (zwo) distance, move away from




dalta — (kwo) chisel




dalwa — (kwo) bucket, pail




dam — (kwo) dam, dike




dama — (kwo) married or widowed woman; dame; lady; (in cards, chess, checkers) a queen




damaja — (kwo) damage

damaji — (zwo) damage




damay — (kwo) barley




damni — (zwo) damn (cf. "shatami")

damna — (kwo) damnation




dan1 — (taim-komo) 1) then (at that time)

Dan me bin haishi yunge. — I was still young then.

depos dan — since then

dan-ney — (kwel) then, of that time

2) then (in that case)

si...dan... — if...then... 

See also: poy




dan2 — (syao) suffix for container

chaydan — (kwo) teapot

nayudan — (kwo) butterdish

milkadan — (kwo) milk can

flordan — (kwo) flowerpot

kalamdan — (kwo) pencil-box

kahwa-dan — (kwo) coffee-pot

manidan — (kwo) wallet




dandi — (kwo) dandy, fop

dandivati — (zwo) behave foppishly




danja — (kwo) danger, peril

danja-ney, danjaful — (kwel) dangerous, perilous




dank a — (konekti) thanks to, owing to

dank a lu — thanks to him

dank a to ke yu he zwo — thanks to what you have done




danke — (exklami) thank you, thanks

Danke! - Es nixa. Bi hao! — Thank you! - Don't mention it. You are welcome!

Danke gro! — Thank you very much!

danki — (zwo) thank

me danki yu por helpi — I thank you for your help

danka — (kwo) gratitude

dankaful — (kwel) thankful, grateful




dansa — (kwo) dance

dansi — (zwo) dance

danser — (kwo) dancer

dansilok — (kwo) dance floor, dance hall




dao — (kwo) way (path; method)

sirkum-dao — roundabout way

pa sey dao — by this way

pa nul dao — in no way, by no means

Milkadao — Milky way

daojen — (kwo) wayfarer, traveller; wanderer

daokin — (kwo) path (trail), pathway

daokrosa — (kwo) crossroads, crossing




dar — (loko-komo) there

May sista es dar. — My sister is there.

Dar es garme. — It's hot there.

Bu go dar! — Don't go there!

See also: adar, hir




darbi — (zwo) strike (hit)

darba — (kwo) blow, stroke




darfi — (sta) have permission, be allowed, (one) may

Lu darfi gun kom leker. — He is allowed to work as a doctor.

Me darfi zin ku? — May I come in?

bu darfi — is not allowed

hir bu darfi fumi — smoking is not allowed here




dashat — (kwo) horror, terror

dashatfilma — thriller, horror film

dashat-ney — (kwel) awful, frightful, dreadful (Syn.: terible)

dashati — (zwo) dread, be terrified/horrified

dashatisi — (zwo) terrify, horrify




dashi — (kwo) ambassador

dashiguan — (kwo) embassy




dasin — (kwo) virtue (moral excellence, an example or kind of it — cf. "merita")

dasin-ney — (kwel) virtuous




dasta — (kwo) detachment, party

avan-dasta — advanced detachment, vanguard




data — (kwo) data




datsan — (kwo) datsan (Buddhist monastery)




datum — (kwo) date (day, month and year)




dave — (kwel) bygone, distant in time, ancient, old

davem — (komo) long ago

yo fon davem — long since, for a long time

nodave — (kwel) recent

nodavem — (komo) recently, not long ago, lately




de — (konekti) 1) of (genitive)

kitaba de toy boy — the book of that boy

jamilitaa de munda — beauty of the world

lingwa de planeta — language of the planet

raita de elekti e gei elekti — the right to elect and be elected

2) of (partialness — optional)

un pes (de) sukra — a piece of sugar

tasa (de) chay — a cup of tea




de(s) — (syao) "opposite action" ("des" if before a vowel)

desharji — discharge

delodi — unload

desorganisi — disorganize




deba — (kwo) debt, duty (obligation)

zwo swa-ney deba — do one's duty

debi — (zwo) owe, be obliged to

Ta debi a me dwashi dolar. — He owes me $20.

Me debi a ta may jiva. — I owe my life to him.




debati — (zwo) debate

debata — (kwo) debate

See also: diskusi




debuti — (zwo) debut

debuta — (kwo) debut, début




dediki — (zwo) dedicate (address or inscribe to another — cf. “devoti”)

dedika — (kwo) dedication




defekta — (kwo) defect, flaw, impairment

defekta-ney (defekte) — (kwel) flawed, imperfect, defective




defensi — (zwo) defend

defensa — (kwo) defence

defensa-ney (defense) — (kwel) defensive




defini — (zwo) define, give the definition of

defina — (kwo) definition




deflui — (zwo) flow away, rush from

defluisa — (kwo) ebb, reflux

afluisa e defluisa — flow and ebb

(Origin: de(s)+flui)




deformi — (zwo) deform, put out of shape

pa deformi-ney inglish — in broken English

deforma, deformitura — (kwo) deformation; deformity




degami — (zwo) divorce

degama — (kwo) divorce

(Origin: de(s)+gami)




degradi — (zwo) degrade, debase

degrada — (kwo) degradation




dek — (kwo) deck (ship’s)




dekadi — (zwo) be decadent, be in state of decay, decline (physically or morally)

dekada — (kwo) decadence, decline




dekapisi — (zwo) decapitate

dekapisa — (kwo) decapitation

(Origin: de(s)+kapa+isi)




deklami — (zwo) declaim

deklama — (kwo) declamation




deklari — (zwo) declare

deklara — (kwo) declaration




deklini — (zwo) deflect; decline (gram., phys., astr.)

deklina — (kwo) deflection, declination




dekori — (zwo) decorate, make decor

dekora — (kwo) decoration; decor

Syn.: orni




dela — (kwo) affair, business, case, issue, matter

bu es may dela — that is none of my business

dela go hao — the affair goes well

prave dela — just/righteous cause

fai dela kun — deal with, have to do with

Dela es ke... — The thing is that... The point is that...




delfin — (kwo) dolphin




delikate — (kwel) delicate, fine




delir — (kwo) delirium, ravings

deliri — (zwo) be delirious, rave

delir-ney — (kwel) delirious




demandi — (zwo) demand (claim, request or ask forcefully)

demanda — (kwo) demand (claim; desire to purchase goods; request for some product)




demision — (kwo) resignation, retirement

demisioni — (zwo) resign, retire




demokratia — (kwo) democracy

demokratike — (kwel) democratic

demokratisi — (zwo) democratize

demokratisa — (kwo) democratization

demokratier (demokrat) — (kwo) democrat




demon — (kwo) demon (evil spirit)




demonstri — (zwo) demonstrate

demonstra — (kwo) demonstration

demonstra-ney (demonstre) — (kwo) demonstrative

demonstrasion — (kwo) demonstration (public display of group opinion)




den — (gramatika) optional accusative particle

Den se me he zwo yo. — This I have done already.




denadi — (zwo) despair

denada — (kwo) despair

(Origin: de(s)+nadi)




dense — (kwel) dense

dense shulin — dense forest

dense tuman — dense fog

fa-dense (densifi) — (zwo) become dense

mah-dense (densisi) — (zwo) make dense, condense

densitaa — (kwo) density

densika — (kwo) thicket

nodense — (kwel) thin, sparse, rarefied

nodensifa — (kwo) rarefaction




denta — (kwo) tooth; prong

diki denta — show/bare one's teeth

shwo tra denta — say between one's teeth

dentista — (kwo) dentist

dentagron — (kwo) tusk




departi — (zwo) depart, leave (a koysa — for smth)

me departi a Rusia — I am leaving for Russia

departa — (kwo) departure

Ant.: arivi




depatmen — (kwo) department




dependi — (zwo) depend (fon koysa/koywan — on smth/smb)

Fon hu se dependi? — On whom does it depend?

dependa — (kwo) dependence

nodependa — (kwo) independence

rekoni nodependa — to recognize the independence

nodependa-ney (nodepende) — (kwel) independent




depo — (kwo) depot, store, storehouse

depo-shamba — (kwo) storeroom; pantry




depon — (zwo) take off, lay off, put off

Depon ba palto! — Take off the coat!

(Origin: de(s)+pon)




depos — (konekti) since, starting from

depos toy dey — since that day

me es hir depos klok shi — I have been here since ten o'clock

depos dan — since then

depos nau — from now on, henceforth

depos longtaim — long since

Syn.: fon




deri — (zwo) delay; linger

deri spira — hold one's breath

dera — (kwo) delay




derivi — (zwo) derive

deriva — (kwo) derivation

derivi-ney — (kwel) derivative, derived

derivitura — (kwo) derivative




derma — (kwo) skin, hide

tumderma-ney — (kwel) swarthy, dark-skinned

dedermisi — (zwo) skin, flay, excoriate




desapari — (zwo) disappear, vanish

desapara — (kwo) disappearance

(Origin: de(s)+apari)




desemba — (kwo) December (also mes-shi-dwa)




desendi — (zwo) descend, go down

desendi sulam — go downstairs

kamina desendi a riva — the road descends to the river

desenda — (kwo) descent

Syn.: go nich

Ant.: asendi




deser — (kwo) dessert




deserti — (zwo) desert (abandon, withdraw)

deserter — (kwo) deserter




desidi — (zwo) decide

desida — (kwo) decision

desidi-nem (desidem) — (kwo) decidedly




deskovri — (zwo) discover

deskovra — (kwo) discovery




deskribi — (zwo) describe

deskriba — (kwo) description




desne — (kwel) right (not left)

desna — (kwo) right, right side

a desna — (loko-komo) (to the) right

Kan a desna! — Look right!

Hir treba turni a desna. — Here one should turn right.

desnen — (konekti-komo) at the right (of)

May dom es desnen. — My house is at the right.

Desnen dom ye garden. — There is a garden to the right of the house.




despota — (kwo) despot




destini — (zwo) destine

destina — (kwo) destination (ultimate purpose for which smth is created or intended — cf. “safara-gola”)




destrukti — (zwo) destroy

destrukta — (kwo) destruction

destruktive — (kwel) destructive, disruptive

Syn.: nihilisi




detal — (kwo) detail

detal-ney — (kwel) detailed

detal-nem — (komo) in detail

detalisi — (zwo) detail

detalisa — (kwo) detailing




detekti — (zwo) detect

detekta — (kwo) detection

detekter — (kwo) detector




detektif — (kwo) detective




determini — (zwo) determine (establish or ascertain definitely, give direction to, fix the limits of)

determina — (kwo) determination (but not resolution — cf. “resolutitaa”)

determinitaa — (kwo) determinacy

nodeterminitaa — (kwo) indeterminateness




developi — (zwo) develop

developa — (kwo) development




devisa — (kwo) motto




devori — (zwo) devour




devoti — (zwo) devote

devoti swa a koysa/koywan — to devote oneself to smth/smb

devoti-ney — (kwel) devoted

devota — (kwo) devotion (act of devoting or the state of being devoted)

boh-devoten — (kwel) pious, devout




dey — (kwo) day (in all meanings)

deyfan — (kwo) midday meal; dinner

lumadey — (kwo) daylight, daytime

bugundey — (kwo) day free from work, day off, rest-day

festadey — (kwo) holiday, day of celebration

gundey — (kwo) working day, workday

janmadey — (kwo) birthday

hao dey! — good day!

fa-dey — it is dawning, day is breaking

fa-deysa — (kwo) dawn, daybreak




diabla — (kwo) devil, fiend (Satan or demon)

Pa diabla! — What the devil!

See also: bes, satan




diagnos — (kwo) diagnosis

diagnosi — (zwo) diagnose




diagonale — (kwel) diagonal

diagonala — (kwo) diagonal




diagrama — (kwo) diagram




dialekta — (kwo) dialect




dialoga — (kwo) dialogue




diamanta — (kwo) diamond




diarea — (kwo) diarrhoea




diba — (kwo) bottom (the lowest part — cf. "popa")

mar diba — sea bottom




difusi — (zwo) diffuse

difusa — (kwo) diffusion (but not prolixity)




digesti — (zwo) digest (physiol.)

digesta — (kwo) digestion




digne — (kwel) dignified, stately; worthy

dignitaa — (kwo) dignity




diki — (zwo) show, display

diki lisan a leker — show one's tongue to the doctor

diki suy joisa — show one's joy

dikifinga — (kwo) index finger

dika — (kwo) showing, demonstration

diker — (kwo) pointer, indicator

oradiker — hour hand

minutadiker — minute hand




diki-winda — (kwo) shop window




diktat — (kwo) diktat, dictate (command)

diktati — (zwo) dictate (impose, order)

diktater — (kwo) dictator

diktatura — (kwo) dictatorship




dikti — (zwo) dictate (say or read aloud)

dikter — (kwo) announcer




dilim — (kwo) slice, clove

luna-dilim — (kwo) crescent




dimension — (kwo) dimension




dinamika — (kwo) dynamics

dinamike — (kwel) dynamic




dine — (kwel) thin (about size — cf. “nodense”)

Ant.: grose




diploma — (kwo) diploma




diplomatia — (kwo) diplomacy

diplomatike — (kwel) diplomatic




direksion — (kwo) direction (path, course — cf. "diriging")




direkte — (kwel) direct (not indirect — cf. "rekte")

direkte kontakta — direct contact

direktem — (komo) directly; straightforwardly




direktor — (kwo) director (person chosen to control or govern the affairs of an institution or corporation)

direktor de skola — director of a school




dirigi — (zwo) direct (aim at; manage, control)

fa-dirigi — (zwo) make one’s way (to), direct one’s steps, head

diriging — (kwo) directing; direction (guidance; the skill of directing a film, play etc.)




disain — (kwo) design (shape, appearance, plan for the structure and functions)

disaini — (zwo) design, lay out, make a design

disainer — (kwo) designer




disasta — (kwo) disaster, calamity, catastrophe (cf. "beda")




disertasion — (kwo) dissertation




dish — (kwo) dish (the vessel or its contents)

Syn.: pyata




disipi — (zwo) dissipate, squander, waste

disipa — (kwo) dissipation, squander, waste

Ant.: spari, ekonomi




disipla — (kwo) disciple

Ant.: guru, talimer




disiplina — (kwo) discipline (behaviour control)




diska — (kwo) disk




diskrete — (kwel) discrete, discontinuous




diskusi — (zwo) discuss

diskusa — (kwo) discussion




disposi — (zwo) dispose (arrange; have at one’s disposal)

disposa — (kwo) disposition, disposal (positioning; control)




disputi — (zwo) argue, spar, bicker

disputa — (kwo) dispute, controversy

disputibile — (kwel) disputable, arguable

disputnik — (kwo) debater, squabbler

prais-disputnik — haggler




distansia — (kwo) distance (cf. "dalitaa")




distili — (zwo) distil

distila — (kwo) distillation

distiler — (kwo) distiller




distinti — (zwo) distinguish

fa-distinti in batala — distinguish oneself in action

distinta — (kwo) distinction

fai distinta inter koysa e koysa — make difference between smth and smth

distinta-ney (distinte) — (kwel) distinct

distintive — (kwel) distinctive




distrati — (zwo) distract, divert

distrata — (kwo) distraction, diversion; (fig.) absence of mind

distrati-ney (distraten), distratishil — (kwel) absent-minded




distribu — (zwo) distribute

distribusa — (kwo) distribution




disturbi — (zwo) disturb, trouble, bother, unsettle, put out of order

disturba — (kwo) disturbance




diva — (kwo) miracle, marvel, wonder

diva yok — no wonder

diva-ney — (kwel) marvellous, wonderful

divi — (zwo) wonder, marvel, look with amazement




divan — (kwo) divan (sofa)




diverse — (kwel) diverse, sundry, several, various

diversitaa — (kwo) diversity, variety, multiplicity




dividi — (zwo) divide

shi-dwa dividi bay char es tri — twelve divided by four is three

divida — (kwo) dividing, division (act)




division — (kwo) division (military formation)

(cf. "divida")




do — (konekti) precedes a specific characteristic, distinctive feature, or destination of object

gela do grin okos — green-eyed girl

jen do lignagamba — a man with a wooden leg

sikin do kalam — penknife

okula do surya — sun spectacles

bota do parus — sailing boat

auto do mil dolar — a car for 1000 dollars

es kosa do ridi — this is ridiculous




docha — (kwo) daughter




doga — (kwo) dog

man-doga (dogo) — (kwo) male dog

gin-doga (dogina) — (kwo) bitch, female dog

yundoga — (kwo) pup, puppy




doh — (exklami) (in response to a negative question or statement) yes; oh yes; on the contrary, quite the contrary

Also yu bu lai? - Doh! — So you won't come? - Oh, yes, I will!

Syn.: kontrem




doiche — (kwel, kwo) German (relating to ethnicity, language or country); German (person of German ethnicity); German language




Doichland — (kwo) Germany

Doichland-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Germany




do-janma-ney — (kwel) innate, inborn, inherent, native




dok — (kwo) dock (in port)

doker — (kwo) docker

doki — (kwo) dock




doktor — (kwo) doctor (holder of a doctorate; physician)

See also: leker




doktrina — (kwo) doctrine




dokumenta — (kwo) document

dokumenti — (zwo) document

dokumentale — (kwel) documental




dol — (kwo) dale, vale




dolar — (kwo) dollar

auto do mil dolar — a car for 1000 dollars




dolche — (kwel) sweet

dolchevos-ney — having a sweet voice

dolchitaa — (kwo) sweetness, sweet (basic taste sensation)

dolcha, dolchika — (kwo) sweet (smth sweet)




dom — (kwo) house; home

me es pa dom — I am at home

chu dom — to leave home

treba go a dom — we should go home

domlik — (kwel) home, cozy

domyuan — (kwo) member of household

dom-masta — (kwo) householder

banidom — (kwo) bath-house

forjidom — (kwo) smithy, forge

grendom — (kwo) granary, barn

melidom — (kwo) mill

mifendom — (kwo) hive

furmidom — (kwo) anthill




domen — (kwo) domain, sphere; domain (computing)




domini — (zwo) dominate

domini-she — (kwel) dominant, dominating

domina — (kwo) domination




domino — (kwo) domino




domisi — (zwo) domesticate




doni — (zwo) give as a gift; donate; make a present (cf. “dai”)

dona — (kwo) gift, present; donation

dona de shwosa — gift of speech

donakin — (kwo) sop; tip

donishil — (kwel) generous, unstinting

donishiltaa — (kwo) generosity




dosa — (kwo) dose




dosh — (kwo) vice, defect, flaw

Ant.: merita




dosile — (kwel) docile




doti — (zwo) endow; furnish a dowry

dota — (kwo) dowry, endowment; gift, talent, endowment

dotika — (kwo) dowry (payment or property)

sindotnik — (kwo) person without talent




dragon — (kwo) dragon (cf. «lung»)




draka — (kwo) scuffle, tussle, fight




drama — (kwo) drama




dranga — (kwo) pressure, stress, force, push, dash; urge, drive

por dranga de halat — through force of circumstances

dranga fo libritaa — drive for freedom

drangi — (zwo) urge, hustle, press, force

fa-drangi — (zwo) jostle, hustle, crowd

fa-drangi tra jenmenga — thrust one’s way through the crowd

fa-dranging — (kwo) crowding, crush, jam, squash




drastike — (kwel) drastic

drastike shanja — drastic alterations

drastike meja — drastic measures




dreni — (zwo) drain, draw off liquid

dreni-tuba — drain, drain pipe

drena, drenaja — (kwo) drainage




drimi — (zwo) dream (hope, wish, daydream)

drima — (kwo) dream (hope, wish, cherished desire), daydream

drimnik — (kwo) (day)dreamer

drima-ney (drime) — (komo) dreamy, pensive

drima-nem (drimem) — (komo) dreamily, musingly

(cf. "sonja")




drir — (kwel) uncompromising, steadfast, firm, unflinching, inflexible, unbending




drole — (kwel) funny, amusing




droni — (zwo) drown; sink

droni-ney jen, dronijen — drowned man

mah-droni — (zwo) drown (deprive of life)

mah swa droni — drown oneself




dros — (kwo) thrush (bird)

gana-dros — (kwo) song-thrush




duan — (kwo) segment, section, piece

laste daoduan — last section/length of road

taimduan — space of time




dubi — (zwo) doubt, question

duba — (kwo) doubt

dubival — (kwel) doubtful, dubious, questionable

sin duba, duba yok — undoubtedly, no doubt




dubli — (zwo) dub (a film)




duda — (kwo) pipe (music — cf. “pipa”)

dudi — (zwo) play the pipe




duel — (kwo) duel

dueli — (zwo) duel




duhi — (zwo) anguish

duha — (kwo) anguish, misery, distress

duhaful — (kwel) agonizing, distressing, trying




duka — (kwo) duke / duchess

duko — (kwo) duke

dukina — (kwo) duchess




dukan — boutique, shop




dukti — (zwo) lead (guide or conduct), conduct (manage, carry on — cf. "kondukti")

dukti kinda bay handa — lead a child by the hand

dukti auto — drive/steer a car

baum-alee dukti a dom — alley of trees leads to the house

se mog dukti a bade sekwitura — this may lead to bad consequences

dukti leson — conduct a lesson

dukti elekti-kampania — conduct an election campaign




dulari — (zwo) coddle, pamper, fondle




dule — (kwel) tender (affectionate)

dulitaa — (kwo) tenderness




dulha — (kwo) fiancée/bride or fiancé/bridegroom

dulho — (kwo) fiancé/bridegroom

dulhina — (kwo) fiancée/bride

Syn.: gamer




dumi — (zwo) think

me dumi ke… — I think that...

en-dumi — (zwo) begin to think

duma — (kwo) thought, idea

dumishil — (kwel) thoughtful

duming — (kwo) thinking

dumi-shem — (komo) thoughtfully, meditatively

bedumi — (zwo) ponder/think over




dun — (kwo) hole (opening; hollow)

baum dun — tree hollow

dun-ney — (kwel) having a hole; full of holes

duni — (zwo) hole

duner — (kwo) puncher; holer

butondun — (kwo) buttonhole

nosdun — (kwo) nostril

dunbartan — (kwo) colander

dunmuh — (kwo) mouth of hole




duna — (kwo) dune




duran — (konekti) during

duran laste dwa yar — in the course of the last two years

duran leksia — during the lecture

duran to, duranem — (taim-komo) meanwhile

duran ke — (konekti) while




duri — (zwo) last (continue, endure)

dura — (kwo) duration




durte — (kwel) sly, cunning, wily

durtitaa — (kwo) cunning; slyness

nodurte — (kwel) artless, simple-hearted, ingenuous; naive

durta (durto, durtina) — (kwo) cunning person (man, woman)




dus — (syao) "bad, mal-, ill-"

fauha smell – dusfauha fetor, stench

trati to treat – dustrati to maltreat

dusfama-ney ill-famed

dustaim bad times

dussigna-ney (dussigne) ill-omened, sinister

pa dusfortuna by ill luck




dusha — (kwo) shower (bath)

fai dusha — take a shower




dushman — (kwo) enemy

dushman-ney, dushmanlik — (kwel) hostile, inimical

dushmantaa — (kwo) enmity, hostility




dushte — (kwel) malicious, spiteful

dushtitaa — (kwo) malice, spite




dusproba — (kwo) trial, ordeal

subi dusproba — undergo an ordeal

(Origin: dus+proba)




duyfu — (zwo) cope with, manage, overcome, deal effectively

duyfu gunsa — cope with work

nu ve duyfu se — we'll cope with that

duyfu sin koysa — do without smth, manage without smth




duza — (kwo) belly, abdomen




dwa — (kwanto) two (2)

li dwa jen — the two of them, they both

nu toki ba pa dwa jen — let the two of us have a talk

mah-dwa — (zwo) bisect, divide into two

fa-dwa — (zwo) become double; bifurcate

dwafen

un dwafen — one half

dwaple — (kwel) double, dual; twofold

dwaplem — (komo) doubly

dwaplem santush — doubly glad

dwapla — (kwo) double (twice the number, amount, etc.)

dwaplisi — (zwo) double, make twice as great

dwaplifi — (zwo) double, increase twofold

dwashi — twenty

dwasto — two hundred

dwa-ney — second

dwa-nem — secondly

dwanik — (kwo) (smb's) double

dwaka — (kwo) two

Skribi dwaka. — Write the figure two.




dwadi — (kwo) Tuesday




dwapunta — (kwo) colon (punctuation mark)




dwar — (kwo) door

klefi dwar — lock the door

bakdwar — (kwo) back door

dwaryuan — (kwo) doorkeeper, doorman




e — (unisi) and

Me pri rasmi e gani. — I like to draw and sing.

Me pri rasmi e lu pri gani. — I like to draw, and he likes to sing.

See also: i




edikta — (kwo) edict, decree, ukase




editi — (zwo) publish (a book, a paper), print (cf. “redakti”)

edita — (kwo) edition

un-ney edita — the first edition




eduki — (zwo) bring up, educate, breed

hao eduki-ney — well-bred, well-mannered, well brought up

eduka — (kwo) upbringing




efekta — (kwo) effect

efektive — (kwel) efficacious, effective

efektivitaa — (kwo) effectiveness, efficacy, efficaciousness




eforti — (zwo) make/exert effort

eforta — (kwo) effort




egale — (kwel) equal

es egale a me — it's all the same to me, it doesn't matter to me

egale geim — draw (game)

egalem — (komo) equally

egalitaa — (kwo) equality

egalisi — (zwo) equalize

egalsenta-ney — (kwel) indifferent, not caring




ego — (kwo) ego

egoisma — (kwo) egoism

egoista — (kwo) egoist

egoistike — (kwo) egoistic




eho — (kwo) echo




ejekti — (zwo) eject

ejekta — (kwo) ejection




ek- — (syao) "one time or suddenly" (single or momentary action)

tuki "to knock" — ek-tuki "to give a knock"

salti "to jump" — ek-salti "to jump up"




ekinoxa — (kwo) equinox

oton-ekinoxa — autumnal equinox

vesna-ekinoxa — vernal equinox




ekipi — (zwo) equip

ekipa — (kwo) equipment

ekiping — (kwo) equipping

ekipinka — (kwo) item of equipment, accessory




eklipsa — (kwo) eclipse




ekonomi — (zwo) economize

ekonoming — (kwo) economizing, economization

ekonoma — (kwo) economy (sparing use or example/result of it)

ekonoma-ney — (kwel) economical (prudent; intended to save money), economy (economical or inexpensive to buy or use)

Syn.: spari

Ant.: disipi




ekonomia — (kwo) economics; economy (management; system of production)

ekonomike — (kwel) economic

ekonomista — (kwo) economist




ekran — (kwo) screen (viewing area) (cf. "shirma")




eksiti — (zwo) excite (arouse, incite, rouse, provoke)

eksita — (kwo) excitation




ekwator — (kwo) equator




ela — (inplas-kwo) she, her

Ela es jamile. — She is handsome.

Lu lubi ela. — He loves her.

Lu doni flor a ela. — He gives flowers to her.

ela-ney, elay — (inplas-kwel) her

Lu pri elay smaila. — He likes her smile.




elabori — (zwo) elaborate (work out with care and detail)

elabora — (kwo) elaboration




Elada — (kwo) Greece




elastike — (kwel) elastic

See also: upruge




elefanta — (kwo) elefant

elefanto — (kwo) male elefant

elefantina — (kwo) female elefant




elegante — (kwel) elegant

elegansia — (komo) elegance




elekti — (zwo) elect, select by vote

elekta — (kwo) election




elektre — (kwel) electric, electrical

May be shortened to el-:

el-ketla — electric kettle

elektritaa — (kwo) electricity

elektrisi — (zwo) electrify

elektriser — (kwo) electrizer

elektrifi — (zwo) electrify (intr.), become electric

elektrisa/elektrifa — (kwo) electrization




elektronika — (kwo) electronics

elektronike — (kwel) electronic




elementa — (kwo) element

elementare — (kwel) elementary




elin — (kwel, kwo) Greek (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Greek (person of Greek ethnicity); the Greek language




elita — (kwo) elite

elita-ney — (kwel) elite




elixir — (kwo) elixir




eludi — (zwo) elude, evade

eludive — (kwel) elusive

eluda — (kwo) evasion, elusion

See also: eviti




embrasi — (zwo) embrace, hug

embrasa — (kwo) embrace, hug




embrio — (kwo) embryo




emerji — (zwo) emerge (from a liquid); (fig.) rise into view

emerja — (kwo) emersion, emergence




emfasi — (zwo) emphasize, stress, single out as important

emfasa — (kwo) emphasis

See also: aksenti




eminente — (kwel) eminent, distinguished, notable




emisi — (zwo) emit

emisa — (kwo) emission




emosion — (kwo) emotion




emploi — (zwo) employ (give work/job)

emploier — (kwo) employer

emploiyuan (or simply yuan) — (kwo) employee

emploisa — (kwo) employment

noemploisa — (kwo) unemployment

desemploi — (zwo) discharge, dismiss, fire




en- — (syao) "begin" (beginning of action)

somni "to sleep" — en-somni "to fall asleep"

lubi "to love" — en-lubi "to fall in love"

jan "to know" — en-jan "to get to know, find out"

(cf. "ek-")




energetika — (kwo) energetics




energia — (kwo) energy

energike — (kwel) energetic, energy




eni — (inplas-kwel) any

Eni kinda mog zwo se. — Any child can do this.

in eni kasu (enikas) — in any case

enikomo — (inplas-komo) in any way, anyhow

Yu mog zwo se kom yu yao. Yu mog zwo se enikomo. — You may do it as you like. You may do it in any way.

Yu mus zwo se enikomo. — You must do it anyhow.

enilok — (inplas-komo) anywhere, at any place

Me bu remembi a wo me he pon may kalam. It mog bi enilok. — I don't remember where I've put my pencil. It may be anywhere.

Yu mog pon yur bao a enilok. — You may put your bag wherever you like.

enisa — (inplas-kwo) anything

Yu mog kuki enisa ke yu yao. — You can cook whatever you like.

enitaim — (inplas-komo) anytime

Yu mog lai enitaim. Me sempre joi al vidi yu. — You may come anytime. I am always glad to see you.

enives — (taim-komo) ever (at any time)

Ob yu enives lekti sey kitaba? — Have you ever read this book?

eniwan — (inplas-kwo) anyone

Kada jen yao bi felise. Kwesti ba eniwan. — Every person wants to be happy. Ask anyone.




enoi — (zwo) be bored, feel dull, have a tedious time (cf. “tedi”)

enoisa — (kwo) boredom, ennui

enoisaful — (kwel) boring, dull




ensiklopedia — (kwo) encyclopedia

ensiklopedike — (kwel) encyclopedic




envi — (zwo) envy

envi koywan — to envy smb

enva — (kwo) envy

envishil — (kwel) envious

envival — (kwel) enviable




episoda — (kwo) episode

episodike — (kwel) episodic; occasional




epoka — (kwo) epoch

Mide Epoka — Middle Ages




era — (kwo) era




ergo — (unisi) consequently

See also: also




ermina — (kwo) ermine




erupti — (zwo) erupt

erupta — (kwo) eruption

erupta de vulkan — the eruption of a volcano




es — (zwo) is, are, am (the present tense of "bi")

Ela es jamile. — She is handsome.

(Se) es kitaba. — This is a book.

Se es yo zwo-ney. — This is already done.




esensia — (kwo) essence (phys. and metaphys.)

esensiale — (kwel) essential (showing essence; of high importance; also biochem.)




eskadra — (kwo) squadron




eskapi — (zwo) escape

eskapa — (kwo) escape




eskorta — (kwo) escort

eskorti — (zwo) escort




Espania — (kwo) Spain

Espania-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Spain




espaniol — (kwel, kwo) Spanish (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Spanish (person of Spanish ethnicity); Spanish language




esperanto — (kwo) Esperanto

esperanto(-ney) — (kwel) Esperantist (of, relating to, or characteristic of Esperanto)

esperantista — (kwo) Esperantist (speaker of/specialist in Esperanto)




esta — (kwo) east

esta(-ney) — (kwel) east, eastern; oriental

este feng — east wind

esten — (konekti-komo) to the east, east of

urba es esten — the town is to the east

esten urba ye shulin — forest is east of the town




establi — (zwo) establish (set up, bring into force, settle)

Syn.: fundi




estriba — (kwo) stirrup

Syn.: raidi-pedika




etaja — (kwo) storey

uuparetaja — upper floor

char-etaja-ney dom — four-storey house




eter — (kwo) ether




eterne — (kwel) eternal, everlasting




etiket — (kwo) etiquette




etna — (kwo) ethnic group

etnike — (kwel) ethnic




eureka — (exklami) eureka




euro — (kwo) euro

tri euro petshi sentu — three euros fifty cents




Europa — (kwo) Europe

Europa(-ney) — (kwel) European

europajen — (kwo) European (person living or originating from Europe)




evalu — (zwo) evaluate, estimate

evalusa — (kwo) evaluation, estimate




eventi — (zwo) happen, occur, take place

Kwo eventi? — What's happened?

Kwo eventi-te a lu? — What has happened to him?

eventa — (kwo) event, occurrence




eversi — (zwo) evert, turn inside out

eversa — (kwo) evertion




evidente — (kwel) evident, obvious

evidentem — (komo) evidently

evidentisi — (zwo) show with obviousness, be eloquent of




eviti — (zwo) avoid

evita — (kwo) avoiding, avoidance

evitival — (kwel) which is better to avoid

buevitibile — (kwel) unavoidable, inevitable

buevitibilitaa — (kwo) inevitability




evolusion — (kwo) evolution

evolusioni — (zwo) evolve




ewalaa — (unisi) (coordinating conjunction introducing new, often little expected circumstances)

Ta en-chi ewalaa tro mucho pepa ye. — As he began to eat, he felt that there is too much pepper added.

Me zin shop ewalaa may amiga zai kupi pan. — When I entered the shop, I saw that my friend was buying bread.

Pa un dey saja zai prei, ewalaa orla pasi, mah-lwo maus inu saja-ney handas. Saja ofni okos, ewalaa ye maus in handas. — One day when the sage was praying, an eagle happened to pass by and the eagle dropped a mouse in the hands of the sage. The sage opened his eyes, and there was a mouse in his hands.

(Origin: e+walaa)




ex- — (syao) "former"

ex-mursha — ex-husband

ex-molya — ex-wife

ex-presidenta — ex-president




exakte — (kwel) exact, precise

exaktem — (komo) exactly, precisely

exaktitaa — (kwo) exactness, precision, accuracy




examen — (kwo) exam, examination (test)

fai examen — take/have an examination

exameni — (zwo) examine (determine the qualifications by means of questions or exercises)

examener — (kwo) examiner




examini — (zwo) examine (inspect, scrutinize, study, check the condition or health of)

examina — (kwo) examination (cf. “examen”)




exampla — (kwo) example

fo exampla — for example




exepte — (konekti) except

oli exepte me — everyone except me

exepti — (zwo) except (specify as being an exception)

exepta — (kwo) exeption

fai exepta = exepti




exes — (kwo) excess

pa exes — to excess

exes-ney — (kwel) excess




exili — (zwo) exile, banish

exila — (kwo) exile, banishment




existi — (zwo) exist

exista — (kwo) existence

en-existi — (zwo) arise, start to exist, spring up

en-exista — (kwo) coming into existence




exklami — (zwo) exclaim

exklama — (kwo) exclamation

exklami-signa — (kwo) exclamation mark




exklusi — (zwo) exclude

exklusa — (kwo) exclusion

exklusive — (kwel) exclusive




exosti — (zwo) exhaust

exosta — (kwo) exhaustion

Ant.: restori




exotika — (kwo) exotics, exotica

exotike — (kwel) exotic




expansi — (zwo) expand (to develop in volume or surface, spread, widen, also fig.)

Al fa-warme, aira expansi e fa-leve.— When air warms it expands and becomes lighter.

Nuy komersa kun Jungwo expansi stay. — Our trade with China is steadily expanding.

expansa — (kwo) expansion

expansive — (kwel) expansive

Ant.: simti




expekti — (zwo) expect

me bu he expekti vidi yu — I did not expect to see you

expekta — (kwo) expectation

sobre expekta — beyond expectation




experimenta — (kwo) experiment

experimentale — (kwel) experimental

experimenti — (zwo) experiment




experta — (kwo) expert

experta-ney (experte) — (kwel) expert




expiri — (zwo) expire (to come to an end (of time), terminate)

expira — (kwo) expiration (coming to a close, termination)




expliki — (zwo) explain, explicate

explika — (kwo) explanation, explication




explori — (zwo) explore; reconnoiter, scout

explora — (kwo) exploration; reconnaissance

explorer — (kwo) explorer; scout




explosi — (zwo) explode, detonate

explosa — (kwo) esplosion

explosive — (kwel) explosive

explosika — (kwo) explosives




exploti — (zwo) exploit (to get the value out of; to employ to the greatest possible advantage; to make use of selfishly or unethically)

explota — (kwo) exploitation




exponenta — (kwo) exponent (math.)




exporti — (zwo) export

exporta — (kwo) export, exportation

Ant.: importi




exposi — (zwo) expose (to subject or allow to be subjected; to set in public view, introduce to, exhibit)

exposi a riska — expose to risk

exposa — (kwo) exposition (act or example of exposing; a public exhibition or show, as of artistic or industrial developments)




expres — (kwo) express (smth quick, e.g. a means of transport, such as a train, that travels rapidly)

expres-kursa — an express course




expresi — (zwo) express (convey meaning)

expresa — (kwo) expression




extas — (kwo) ecstasy, rapture




extendi — (zwo) extend, spread, stretch (cf. “stiri”)

lu extendi-te gambas — he stretched out his legs

extendi nayu on pan — spread bread with butter

extendi tel inter dwa stolba — stretch the wire between two posts

extenda — (kwo) extension, spread




externe — (kwel) external

Syn.: ausen-ney

Ant.: interne




extirpi — (zwo) extirpate, uproot; destroy wholly, eradicate, weed out




extrakti — (zwo) extract, draw from/out

extrakta — (kwo) extract




extreme — (kwel) extreme, extremal

extremem — (komo) extremely




fa — (syao-gramatika) 1) "to get, to become"

tume "dark" — fa-tume "grow/get dark, darken"

rude "red" — fa-rude "redden"

gran "big" — fa-gran "get bigger, enlarge"

fa-nocha — the night is coming

fa-dey — it dawns

2) optional marker of intransitivity

astoni "to astonish" — fa-astoni "to be (become) astonished"




fabrika — (kwo) factory, plant, works

fabriki — (zwo) fabricate, manufacture




fabula — (kwo) fable; fairy-tale

fabula(-ney) — (kwel) fabulous (of the nature of a fable; unhistorical)

fabulalik — (kwel) fabulous (incredible)




fadi — (zwo) fade

fading — (kwo) fading




fah — (kwo) field of knowledge, province, speciality

samaji swa-ney fah — understand one's business

bu es suy fah — that is out of his province, that's not in his line

lu es master de suy fah — he is an artist/virtuoso

lernifah — (kwo) subject (course of study)

forjifah — (kwo) blacksmithing




fai — (zwo) "to do, to perform action connected with" (only in combination with nouns or adverbs)

fai interes om koysa — to take an interest in smth

en-fai interes om koysa — to become interested in smth

defai interes om koysa — to lose interest in smth

fai kasam — to make (take) a vow

fai sukses — to succeed




fail — (kwo) file (computer)

faildan — (kwo) folder (computer)




faine — (kwel) fine (very small in size, weight, or thickness; refined; subtle)

faine gusta — a fine taste




fakir — (kwo) fakir




fakta — (kwo) fact

fakta-ney (fakte) — (kwel) factual, actual

fakta-nem (faktem) — (komo) in fact, actually

pa fakta = faktem




fali — (zwo) fail, miscarry, not to succeed

fali-ney — failed, unsuccessful

brek fali — brakes failed

motor fali — the engine failed

fala — (kwo) failure; fiasco

sin fala — without fail, surely (syn.: zaruu)

pistola fai fala — pistol misfired

nofalibile — certain, definite to happen

falnik — (kwo) unlucky fellow/person




falkon — (kwo) falcon




false — (kwel) false; fake

falsitaa — (kwo) falseness; falsity




falsifiki — (zwo) falsify, counterfeit, forge

falsifika — (kwo) falsification, forgery, counterfeit




falta — (kwo) lack, shortage

falti — (zwo) lack

ta falti kuraja — he/she lacks courage




fama — (kwo) fame, renown; repute

fama-ney — (kwel) famous, renowned

dusfama — (kwo) ill fame, notoriety

dusfama-ney — (kwel) ill-famed, infamous, notorious

dusfamisi — (zwo) defame, discredit, besmirch




familia — (kwo) family

familianam — (kwo) family name




fan — (kwo) food

akshamfan — (kwo) evening meal; supper

deyfan — (kwo) midday meal; dinner

fanshop — (kwo) food store, grocery

fantabla — (kwo) dinner table

sabahfan — (kwo) morning meal, breakfast




fanata — (kwo) fan; fanatic, zealot

fanatike — (kwel) fanatical

fanatisma — (kwo) fanatism




fantasia — (kwo) fantasy (creative imagination; imagined event, fiction)




fantastike — (kwel) fantastic

fantastika — (kwo) fiction




fantom — (kwo) phantom (ghost, apparition; illusion)

fantom-ney tunga — phantom pain




fanus — (kwo) lantern, light

el-fanus — electric torch

fanusyuan — (kwo) lamplighter




fara — (kwo) headlight




farad — (kwo) farad




farfari — (zwo) snort, sniff




farina — (kwo) flour

farini — (zwo) dust with flour




farka — (kwo) difference

gro-farka — great or obvious difference, contrast

farka-ney (farke) — (kwel) different

farka-nem (farkem) — (komo) differently

farki — (zwo) differ




farmak — (kwo) medicine, medicament, drug, pharmaceutical preparation

farmakguan — (kwo) pharmacy, drugstore

farmakista, farmakyuan — (kwo) pharmacist




farna — (kwo) fern




farwa — (kwo) fur

farwaklaida — fur clothes

farwapalto — fur coat




fas — (kwo) face




fasa — (kwo) phase




fasada — (kwo) facade, front




faseta — (kwo) facet




fasia — (kwo) 1) sheaf, bundle

luma-fasia — shaft of light

ray-fasia — sheaf of rays

kula-fasia — cone of bullets

2) fascia (connective tissue)




fasile — (kwel) easy, taking little effort

bu es mushkile, es ga fasile — it is not difficult, it is quite easy

fasilem — (komo) easily

fasilitaa — (kwo) easiness

mah-fasile — (zwo) facilitate, make easy or easier




fasol — (kwo) haricot (plant or its bean)




fata — (kwo) fate, doom (cf. “kisma”, one’s lot, destiny)




fatale — (kwel) fatal




fatigi — (zwo) get tired; make weary

fatiga — (kwo) tiredness, weariness, fatigue

fatiga-ney (fatige) — (kwel) weary, tired

fatigi-ney (fatigen) — (kwel) tired, fatigued

fatigi-she — (kwel) tiresome

sinfatiga-ney (sinfatige) — (kwel) tireless, indefatigable




fauha — (kwo) smell, odour

fauhi — (zwo) smell (to have a smell; to sense a smell)

fauhing, fauhisens — (kwo) sense of smell

dusfauha — (kwo) fetor, stench, stink

dusfauhi — (zwo) stink, reek




faula — (kwo) bird

yunfaula — (kwo) baby bird




favor — (kwo) favour (an approving attitude, good will; an act performed out of good will, generosity, or mercy)

pregi koywan om favor — ask someone for a favour

favor-ney — (kwel) favourable

favori — (zwo) favour (treat or regard with kindness, befriend)




favorite — (kwel) favourite

favorita — (kwo) favourite

Syn.:preferi-ney




fax — (kwo) fax

faxi (fai fax) — (zwo) fax




feble — (kwel) weak, feeble

feblem — (komo) weakly

mah-feble (feblisi) — (zwo) weaken, enfeeble, make weaker

fa-feble (feblifi) — (zwo) weaken, become weaker

febli — (zwo) weaken (tr./intr.)

feblitaa — (kwo) weakness




febra — (kwo) fever

febra-ney — (kwel) feverish, febrile




februar — (kwo) February (also mes-dwa)




fek — (kwo) feces, excrement

fekale — (kwel) fecal

feki — (zwo) defecate

feking — (kwo) defecation

Syn.: kaka




felda — (kwo) field

felda de akting — field of action

magnetfelda — magnetic field

feldakin — glade, clearing

(cf. "agra")




felise — (kwel) happy

mah-felise — (zwo) make happy

felisitaa — (kwo) happiness




felta — (kwo) felt




femina — (kwo) female

femina-ney (femine) — (kwel) female

feminasexu — (kwo) female sex

feminum — (kwo) feminine gender (gramm.)

feminisma — (kwo) feminism

feminista — (kwo) feminist




fen — (gramatika) forms fractions

un (de) trifen — one third

sem shifen — seven tenths

tri stofen — three hundredths

pet otfen — five eighths

charfen, charfenka — quarter

charfen (de) ora — a quarter of an hour




fendi — (zwo) split (lengthwise), slit, cleave




feng — (kwo) wind

gro-feng — (kwo) strong wind, gale

fengi — (zwo) blow (about wind)

sedey fengi gro — there is a strong wind today

fenging — (kwo) air current, draught

befengi — (zwo) fan (blow air on)




fenomen — (kwo) phenomenon

fenomenale — (kwel) phenomenal




fenshan — (kwo) customs, manners, morals




fenshu — (kwo) mark, grade (assessment)




fer — (kwo) iron

ferka — (kwo) an iron thing; piece of iron

ferdao — (kwo) railway

(cf. “yunda”)




ferma — (kwo) farm




fermenta — (kwo) ferment (as yeast, leaven)

fermenti — (zwo) ferment

fermenting — (kwo) fermentation




ferose — (kwel) fierce, ferocious




festa — (kwo) holiday, celebration, festivities

festi — (zwo) celebrate

festike — (kwel) celebratory

festing — (kwo) celebration

festachia — (kwo) feast




festival — (kwo) festival




fet — (kwo) fat; grease

fet-ney — (kwel) fat; fatty; greasy

swina-fet — (kwo) lard

fet-baka — (kwo) fat(ty) tail (of certain breeds of sheep)

feti — (zwo) fatten




feya — (kwo) fairy




fiasko — (kwo) fiasco, complete failure

fai fiasko — have a fiasco

Syn.: fala




fibra — (kwo) fibre, fiber




fidele — (kwel) faithful, staunch, loyal

fidelitaa — (kwo) fidelity, loyalty, staunchness




fidi — (zwo) trust, confide in, have faith in; rely on

fidi sol a swa selfa — rely only on oneself

fida — (kwo) confidence, trust, faith

nofida — (kwo) distrust

nofida-nem (nofidem) — (komo) with distrust, distrustfully, mistrustfully

fidival — (kwel) trustworthy, reliable, dependable

fidishil — (kwel) trusting, trustful




figa — (kwo) fig (bot.)

figabaum — (kwo) fig-tree




figura — (kwo) figure (outside form, shape of a body; appearance, representation; also geom.)

figuri — (zwo) figure (to be pertinent or involved, appear — cf. “kalkuli, konti”)




fiktia — (kwo) fiction (imaginative creation, fabrication, invention)

fiktike — (kwel) fictitious; fake, sham




fila — (kwo) row, line; queue, file (a line of persons or things)

fai fila — stand in line (in a queue)




filma — (kwo) film (medium used to capture images; motion picture)

filmi — (zwo) film, shoot (record)

filming — (kwo) shooting

See also: kino




filosofia — (kwo) philosophy

fai filosofia — philosophize

filosofike — (kwel) philosophical

filosofier — (kwo) philosopher




filu — (kwo) thread




fin — 1) (kwo) end

al fin — at the end

pa fin — finally, in the end

til fin — up to the end

ob es fin? — is that all?

fin-ney — (kwel) final; finite

fin-nem — (komo) finally

nofin-ney — (kwel) endless, infinite

nofintaa — (kwo) infinity, endlessness

fini — (zwo) end, be over; finish

olo kel fini hao es hao — all is well that ends well

finika — (kwo) ending (gram.)

2) (syao) "to the end"

lekti "read" — finlekti "read to the end"

chi "eat" — finchi "eat to the end"

zwo "do" — finzwo "finish doing, complete"




final — (kwo) final (last contest), finale




finansa — (kwo) finance, finances

finansa-ney — (kwel) financial

finansi — (zwo) finance

finansing — (kwo) financing




findi — (zwo) find

findi swa — (zwo) find oneself

ta he findi swa sole — he found himself alone

finda — (kwo) find




finga — (kwo) finger; toe; digit

bay finga nok — by fingertips

granfinga — (kwo) thumb

dikifinga — (kwo) forefinger

midfinga — (kwo) middle finger

halkafinga — (kwo) ring-finger

syaofinga — (kwo) little finger

pedafinga — (kwo) toe

on pedafinga — on tiptoe

fingadan — (kwo) thimble




firma — (kwo) firm (business or company)




fish — (kwo) fish

fish-sup — fish soup

fishi — (zwo) fish

fisher — (kwo) fisherman

fishing — (kwo) fishing

fishistik — (kwo) fishing rod

fishika — (kwo) fishing tackle

fishala — (kwo) fin




fisika — (kwo) physics

fisike — (kwel) physical

fisiker — (kwo) physicist




fiti — (zwo) fit, be of the right size; suit (to accord with — see also "godi")

palto fiti hao — the coat fits well

mah-fiti — (zwo) make fit, adjust




fitil — (kwo) wick, fuse




fixi — (zwo) fix, fasten

fixing — (kwo) fixation

fixika — (kwo) fastener

fixi-ney — (kwel) fixed, fastened

fixi-nem (fixem) — (komo) fixedly, steadfastly

kan fixem — stare

fixifi — (zwo) become fixed; lodge, get stuck




flaga — (kwo) flag

lifti (fai uupar) flaga — hoist/raise a flag

flagastanga — (kwo) flagstaff

flagakin — (kwo) small flag, pennon, pennant, bannerette




flai — (zwo) fly

flaisa — (kwo) flight

al flaisa — in flight, in the air, on the wing

en-flai — (zwo) fly up, take off

en-flaisa — (kwo) take-off




flama — (kwo) flame, blaze

flama-lisan — tongues of flame

flama-ney — (kwel) fiery

flami — (zwo) flame, blaze

flami-she — (kwel) flaming

flaming — (kwo) flaming, blazing

flamisi (mah-flami) — (zwo) kindle, ignite, blaze up, produce flame

flamifi (fa-flami) — (zwo) ignite, catch fire, burst into flames, take fire, blaze up

flamiser — (kwo) igniter




flani — (zwo) hang around; loaf, loiter about

flaner — (kwo) loafer




flanke — (kwel) side, flank, lateral

flanka — (kwo) flank, side

montaflanka — mountainside

a flanka — sideways

flanken — (konekti-komo) at the flank or side (of)

es flanken — it's at the flank

es flanken dom — it's at the side of the house




flasha — (kwo) flash (blaze)

foto-flasha — photo flash

bliza-flasha — a flash of lightning

flashi — (zwo) flash, flare




flat — (kwo) flat, apartment




flecha — (kwo) arrow

arku e flechas — bow and arrows

indikiflecha — pointer index

flechadan — (kwo) quiver (container for arrows)




flesh — (kwo) flesh (the soft parts of the body; the physical being)




flexi — (zwo) bend, curve, flex

flexa — (kwo) bending; bend; flexion

flexitura — (kwo) bend, curve (result of bending)

flexibile — (kwel) flexible




fliti — (zwo) whisk, flit, dart, slip (expresses a sudden quick movement)




flor — (kwo) flower

flori — (zwo) flower, bloom, blossom

floring — (kwo) flowering, florescence, blossoming, blooming

flordan — (kwo) flowerpot




flora — (kwo) flora




flot — (kwo) fleet




floti — (zwo) float (be afloat; drift)

flotika — (kwo) float (something that floats)




flotilia — (kwo) flotilla




flui — (zwo) flow

fluisa — (kwo) flow

hwan lif floti nich fluisa — yellow leaves floated down

flui-she — (kwel) flowing, fluent

flui-shem — (komo) fluently




fo — (konekti) 1) for (the object, aim, or purpose)

Es fo yu. — This is for you.

Me ve lai fo vidi ela. — I shall come to see her.

fo ke — in order to (see also "dabe")

2) for (duration or a specific time)

Ob me mog pren yur kitaba fo kelke taim? — May I take your book for some time?

Nu he aranji sey mita fo klok dwa. — We have arranged this meeting for two o'clock.

fo manya — for tomorrow




fobi — (zwo) fear, be afraid

foba — (kwo) fear, fright

prefoba — (kwo) misgiving, apprehension

fobisi — (zwo) frighten, scare, intimidate

rasfobisi — scare/frighten away

fobisa — (kwo) intimidation

en-fobi — (zwo) take fright, get frightened

foba-ney— (kwel) terrible, frightful

fobisi-she — (kwel) frightening

fobishil — (kwel) timid, timorous

fobnik — (kwo) coward

sinfoba-ney — (kwel) fearless, intrepid

-fobista — -phobe




fogeti — (zwo) forget

fogeta — (kwo) oblivion

fogetishil — (kwel) forgetful




fok — (kwo) seal (animal — cf. “sigla”)




fon1 — (konekti) from; of (from among)

Me zai go fon teatra — I am going from the theatre.

Me he resivi se fon lu. — I have received this from him.

fon kapa til peda — from head to foot

fon sabah til aksham — from morning till evening

un fon nu — one of us




fon2 — (kwo) phone, telephone (shortening of "telefon")

Hu-ney fon zai baji? — Whose phone is ringing?




fonda — (kwo) background (but not person's experience, training, or education)




fonetika — (kwo) phonetics

fonetike — (kwel) phonetic




fonologia — (kwo) phonology

fonologike — (kwel) phonological




fontan — (kwo) fountain, jet, spout

fontani — (zwo) fountain




for — (syao-komo) further, on (continuing an action)

fai for — continue, go on

Treba gun for! — One should work on!

Hao for-gunsa! — I wish you good luck on your further work.

Me bu yao resti hir, me sal go for. — I don't want to stay here, I am going to go on.

e tak for (etf) — and so on

for-ney — (kwel) further, following

lo for — what goes further

in lo for — in what follows




fora — (kwo) furrow

See also: ruga




forji — (zwo) forge (metals)

forjer — (kwo) forger, smith

forjidom — (kwo) smithy, forge




forma — (kwo) form, shape

formi — (zwo) form, shape

forming — (kwo) forming, formation (act or process)

formitura — (kwo) formation (result)




formale — (kwel) formal




format — (kwo) format (of publication; of data)

formati — (zwo) format

formati-ney (formaten) — (kwel) formatted




formula — (kwo) formula

formuli — (zwo) formulate

formiling — (kwo) formulation




forna — (kwo) stove, furnace, kiln




forsa — (kwo) force

forsi — (zwo) force; compel

forsi-ofni dwar — force a door open

forsi-ney (forsen) — (kwel) forced

forsen smaila — strained smile




forte — (kwel) strong

mah-forte (fortisi) — (zwo) strengthen, make strong or stronger

fa-forte (fortifi) — (zwo) grow strong or stronger

fortitaa — (kwo) strength




fortesa — (kwo) fortress




fortuna — (kwo) good fortune, good luck

pa fortuna — fortunately, luckily

fai fortuna — have luck, be in luck

Hao fortuna! — Good luck!

nofortuna — (kwo) misfortune

pa nofortuna — unfortunately, unluckily

fortuna-ney (fortune) — (kwel) fortunate, lucky

fortunnik — (kwo) lucky one

nofortunnik — (kwo) unlucky one, luckless




foto — (kwo) photo

foti (fai foto) — (zwo) photograph, take a photo

foting — (kwo) photographing

fotoaparat, fotika — (kwo) photo camera

fotoguan — (kwo) photographer's (studio)




foxa — (kwo) fox

yunfoxa — (kwo) fox cub




fragile — (kwel) fragile, frail




fragmenta — (kwo) fragment




frai — (zwo) fry

fraier — (kwo) fryer; frying pan




frak — (kwo) (evening) dress coat, swallow-tailed coat




frama — (kwo) frame (framework as of a machine, as of a picture; context); spectacle frame, spectacle rim

in frama de koysa — within the framework of smth

windaframa — (kwo) window-frame




franja — (kwo) fringe (decorative border)




franke — (kwel) frank (open in expression, straightforward; manifest)




franko — (kwo) franc (unit of currency)




Frans — (kwo) France

Frans-jen — inhabitant/citizen of France




franse — (kwel, kwo) French (relating to ethnicity, language or country); French (person of French ethnicity); French language




frasa — (kwo) phrase; clause, sentence (gramm.)




fraula — (kwo) strawberry




frekwensa — (kwo) frequency

banda de frekwensa — frequency band




frenta — (kwo) forehead

frentahar — (kwo) fringe (part of the hair that hangs down over the forehead)




freshe — (kwel) fresh

freshenesa — (kwo) freshness

rifreshisi (rimah-freshe) — (zwo) refresh, freshen up




frikasee — (kwo) fricassee




frikti — (zwo) undergo friction

frikta — (kwo) friction

(cf. "froti")




frima — (kwo) hoar-frost, rime




frisi — (zwo) dress the hair

friser — (kwo) hairdresser, barber, coiffeur

frisiguan — (kwo) hairdressing saloon, barber's (shop), hairdresser's




frivole — (kwel) frivolous, light-headed




fronta — (kwo) front (battlefront; field of activity; group or movement — cf. "avana", "frenta")




frosta — (kwo) frost (intensely cold weather)

frosta-ney (froste) — (kwel) frosty (cold, chilly)

frosti — (zwo) freeze

sedey frosti — it is freezing today

frosti-ney (frosten) — (kwel) frozen

Me sta frosten. — I am freezing.

defrosti — (zwo) defrost, unfreeze

froster — (kwo) freezer




froti — (zwo) rub

froti okos — rub one's eyes

froti handas — rub one's hands

froting — (kwo) rubbing, rub

(cf. "frikti")




fruni — (zwo) frown (wrinkle the brow, as in thought or displeasure); wrinkle (the brow)

ta zai fruni — he is frowning

fruni brovas — to knit one's brows

Ant.: smaili




fruta — (kwo) fruit

fruti — (zwo) fruit, bear fruit

fruting — (kwo) fructification (process of producing fruit)

fruti-she — (kwel) fruit-bearing, fructiferous; fruitful

frutishil — (kwel) fecund




fugi — (zwo) flee, run away

fuga — (kwo) flight, escape

fuger — (kwo) fugitive, runaway




fujur — (kwo) depravity

fai fujur — indulge in debauch(ery), lead a depraved/loose/dissolute life




fuki — (zwo) blow (produce an air current)

fuka — (kwo) waft, whiff, puff, breath

fukiflor — (kwo) dandelion




fule — (kwel) full

fulitaa — (kwo) fullness, plenitude

fulem — (komo) fully

fulifi (fa-fule) — (zwo) become filled

fulisi (mah-fule) — (zwo) fill

fuli — (zwo) fill (tr./intr.)




fulfil — (zwo) fulfill (carry out, bring to completion, satisfy), come true

hay may yaosa fulfil! — may my wish come true!

fulfilsa — (kwo) fulfillment




fum — (kwo) smoke

fumi — (zwo) smoke

fuming — (kwo) smoking

fumilok — (kwo) smoking-room

fumtuba — (kwo) chimney




fundamenta — (kwo) foundation (that on which anything rests; groundwork, underpinnings; (fig.) basis, ground)

fundamentale — (kwel) fundamental




fundi — (zwo) found (establish, base)

funda, funding — (kwo) foundation, establishing (cf. "fundamenta")




fundu — (kwo) fund, foundation




funduk — (kwo) hazelnut




funga — (kwo) mushroom




funksion — (kwo) function

funksioni — (zwo) function

funksioning — (kwo) functioning




fupi — (kwo) bran




furaja — (kwo) forage, fodder




furgon — (kwo) van, wagon




furia — (kwo) fury, rage, frenzy

sta pa furia — be furious

furia-ney — (kwel) furious, frantic, frenetic

furisi — (zwo) infuriate, enrage




furka — (kwo) fork

senufurka — pitchfork

daofurka — road fork




furmi — (kwo) ant

furmidom — (kwo) anthill




furni — (zwo) furnish, supply

furna, furning — (kwo) supply, furnishing




fusi — (zwo) melt, fuse, smelt

fusi-nayu — melted butter

fusa, fusing — (kwo) melting, fusion

fusika — (kwo) fuse (electric safety device)




fut — (kwo) foot (unit of measure)




futbol — (kwo) football

futbol pleier, futbolista — (kwo) football-player




futur — (kwo) future

in futur — in future

futur(-ney) — (kwel) future




fuy — (exklami, syao) fie (disgust, repugnance)

fuy-jen, fuynik — a nasty person

fuyka — ugly thing




ga — (komo) quite, entirely, completely

ga hao — quite good

ga fogeti — quite forget

Yu es ga gande! — You are completely dirty!




gadari — (zwo) betray, give away

gadara — (kwo) betrayal, treason

gadarnik — (kwo) betrayer, traitor

gadara-ney (gadare), gadaralik — (kwel) treacherous, perfidious, traitorous




gadle — (kwel) turbid, muddy (not bright or pure, not clear, cloudy; lacking luster, dull)

gadle akwa — turbid water

fa-gadle — (zwo) grow turbid/dull




gaf — (kwo) gaffe, lapse

fai gaf — to make a gaffe




gai — (sta) (one) should, (one) ought, supposed to; befit, become

Gai bi honeste. — One should be honest.

Yu bu gai lanfai. — You should not be lazy.

Sempre gai zwo olo tak kom gai. — One should always do everything as needed.

Gai sempre tayari leson bifoo skola. — One should always prepare one's lesson before the classes.

gai-ke — (kwel) proper, due, appropriate

bugai-ke — (kwel) improper, inappropriate

nogaitaa — (kwo) outrage, disgraceful goings-on

Es nogaitaa! — It's simply a disgrace / a scandal!




galga — (kwo) gallows, gibbet

Syn.: pendi-kilika




galopi — (zwo) gallop

galopa — (kwo) gallop




galsa — (kwo) neck

galsahar — (kwo) mane

galsatasma — (kwo) collar (band around an animal’s neck — cf. “kolar”)




galta — (kwo) error, mistake

galti — (zwo) err, be wrong, make a mistake

galta-ney (galte) — (kwel) erroneous, mistaken




gamande — (kwel) haughty, supercilious; conceited

gamanditaa — (kwo) haughtiness, superciliousness; conceit




gamba — (kwo) leg

stula gamba — chair's leg




gambir — (kwel) serious

Syn.: seriose




gami — (zwo) marry (intr./tr.)

gamifi — (zwo) marry (intr.)

gamer, gamifer — (kwo) fiance/fiancee (also dulho, dulhina)

gaming — (kwo) marriage (wedding)

gamifesta — (kwo) wedding

gamisi — (zwo) marry (tr.)

gami-ney — (kwel) married

gama, gamitura — (kwo) wedlock, marriage (the state of being married)

gamijen — (kwo) spouse, wife/husband

gamiman — (kwo) male spouse, husband (also mursha)

gamigina — (kwo) female spouse, wife (also molya)

bugamnik — (kwo) bachelor

ausengama-ney — (kwel) extramarital




gamusa — (kwo) chamois, suede, shammy




gana — (kwo) song

statagana — national anthem

gani — (zwo) sing

gani-ki — (zwo) hum; sing quietly

ganer — (kwo) singer




gande — (kwel) dirty, impure; indecent, nasty

mah-gande (gandisi) — (zwo) dirty, soil; pollute

fa-gande (gandifi) — (zwo) get/become dirty

gandi — (zwo) make/become dirty

ganditaa — (kwo) impurity, filth, dirt

gandenik — (kwo) slovenly/untidy person




gansa — (kwo) goose

gin-gansa (gansina) — (kwo) female goose

man-gansa (ganso) — (kwo) gander, male goose

yungansa — (kwo) gosling

gansamasu — (kwo) goose meat

See also: hansa




ganta — (kwo) glove

piga ganta — leather gloves

dwa para ganta — two pairs of gloves




gao — (kwel, komo) high

mah-gao — (zwo) make high, raise higher, elevate

fa-gao — (zwo) become higher, heighten

gaotaa — (kwo) height

gaoley — (kwel) higher (advanced in complexity or elaboration; of education beyond the secondary level)

gaoley talim — higher education




gap — (kwo) gap

gapi — (zwo) gape (open wide — cf. "guapi")




garabel — (kwo) sparrow




garaja — (kwo) garage (place to store a car)




garantia — (kwo) guarantee (anything that assures a certain outcome; a written declaration)

pet-yar-ney garantia — a 5-year guarantee

garanti — (zwo) guarantee

garanter — (kwo) guarantor




garbar — (kwo) turmoil, bustle, fuss




garden — (kwo) garden

kindagarden — (kwo) kindergarten

legumgarden — (kwo) kitchen garden

zoo-garden — (kwo) zoological garden




gardi — (zwo) guard, safeguard

garda — (kwo) guarding, safeguarding

gardiyuan — (kwo) guard (a person who guards)

gardika — (kwo) guard (something that gives protection or prevents damage)




gargari — (zwo) gargle




gari — (kwo) carriage, cart, wagon, chariot

bebi gari — baby carriage

garijen — (kwo) coachman




garibe — (kwel) alien, extraneous, foreign

gariba — (kwo) alien, stranger




garja — (kwo) thunderstorm




garma — (kwo) heat

garma-ney (garme) — (kwel) hot

es garme — it is hot

me sta garme — I am hot

garmitaa — (kwo) hotness

garmi — (zwo) heat up (intr./tr.)

garmifi (fa-garme) — (zwo) become hot

garmisi (mah-garme) — (zwo) heat up

garming — (kwo) heating

garmiser — (kwo) heater (device)




garoba — (kwo) carob

garoba-baum — carob tree




garson — (kwo) waiter




garwe — (kwel) proud

garwi, garwefai — (zwo) be proud, take pride

garwi por koysa — be proud of smth

garwitaa — (kwo) pride




gas — (kwo) gas

gas(-ney) — (kwel) gas

gasisi — (zwo) gasify; aerate

gasisa — (kwo) gasification; aeration

gasyuan — (kwo) gasman

gaspiwat, gaska — (kwo) fizzy drink




gasela — (kwo) gazelle




gaseta — (kwo) newspaper




gason — (kwo) lawn, grassplot




gasta — (kwo) guest

gasti — (zwo) be a guest, be on a visit, stay

gasti she amiga — stay at a friend's

gastaguan — (kwo) hotel, guesthouse

gastashamba — (kwo) drawing room, sitting room, living room




gata — (kwo) street

fai gata — be outdoors; stroll

gata-ki — (kwo) bystreet




gaurawe — (kwel) considerable, substantial; influential, imposing




gavahi — (zwo) witness, testify

gavaha — (kwo) testimony, witness

gavaher — (kwo) witness, eyewitness

oko-gavaher — (kwo) eyewitness




gayar — (kwo) lad, guy, fellow, chap, bloke




gaza — (kwo) gauze (thin fabric)




ge — 1) (kwo) piece (single item)

pet dolar per ge — five dollars apiece

2) (gramatika) optional marker of the singular

auto-ge — one car

jen-ge — one person




geda — (kwo) spike (fish)




gei — (gramatika) marks "passive of becoming"

gunsa gei zwo — the work is being done

kitaba gei lekti — this book is being read




geim — (kwo) game (a kind of game; a stage of game — cf. “pleisa”)

video-geim — (kwo) video game

worda-geim — (kwo) word game

hima (saif) geimes — (kwo) winter (summer) games




geit — (kwo) gate




gela — (kwo) girl

See also: yungina




gemi — (zwo) groan, moan

gema — (kwo) groan, moan




gen — (kwo) gene




general — (kwo) general (commander)




generale — (kwel) general (not particular — cf. «sarwe»)

generalem — (komo) in general

generalisi — (zwo) generalize

generalisa — (kwo) generalization




generasion — (kwo) generation (people of same period)




generati — (zwo) generate (bring into existence; engender, procreate; produce)

generati elektritaa — to generate electricity

generative — (kwel) generative

generata — (kwo) generation (act or process of generating; origination, production, or procreation)




genetika — (kwo) genetics

genetike — (kwel) genetical




genia — (kwo) genius

geniale — (kwel) of genius, ingenious, genial

genialem — (komo) ingeniously, genially

genialitaa — (kwo) ingeniousness, ingenuity

genialnik — (kwo) genius (about a person)




genra — (kwo) genus, genre




genta — (kwo) clan, ethnic group, family, kin, stock




genu — (kwo) knee

genu jor — knee joint

genukapak — kneecap, patella

genui — (kwo) kneel

lwo-genui — fall to one's knees




geografia — (kwo) geography

geografier — (kwo) geographer




gerania — (kwo) geranium




gerbila — (kwo) gerbil




gesi — (zwo) guess

gesa — (kwo) guess

gesing — (kwo) guessing




geti — (zwo) get (to somewhere, into smth); fall (into a situation)

geti a dom — get home

geti inu kaptika — fall into a trap

geti aus koylok — get out of somewhere




gida — (kwo) guide (person or thing)

gidi — (zwo) guide (serve as a guide; exert control or influence over)

gei gidi bay koysa — to be guided by smth




giganta — (kwo) giant

giganta-ney (gigante) — (kwel) giant




gimnastika — (kwo) gymnastics

gimnastike — (kwel) gymnastic




gin- — (syao) "feminine"

gin-studenta — female student

gin-dogа — bitch




gina — (kwo) woman (also ginjen)

ginalik — (kwel) womanly

ginaliknesa — (kwo) womanliness

ko-gina — (kwo) female companion; wife

ginnik — (kwo) womanizer

ginaley — (kwo) womankind




girlanda — (kwo) garland




gitara — (kwo) guitar




gladi — (zwo) stroke (move the hand over the surface of smth in one direction)




glan — (zwo) be glossy, shine

glan-she — (kwel) glossy, shiny, sleek

glansa — (kwo) gloss, shine, lustre

mah-glan — (zwo) gloss, give a gloss or sheen to




glas — (kwo) glass (substance)

glas(-ney) — (kwel) glass, of glass

glas bartan — glass utensil

glaslik — (kwel) glassy

glaska — (kwo) smth made of glass; jar

jemglaska — jam-jar




glasa — (kwo) glass (vessel)

glasakin — (kwo) small drinking glass




glate — (kwel) smooth (not rough)

fa-glate (glatifi) — (zwo) become smooth

mah-glate (glatisi) — (zwo) smooth

Ant.: karke




glidi — (zwo) slide, glide

gliding — (kwo) sliding, slip

glide — (kwel) slippery, sliding




glimi — (zwo) glimmer (emit or reflect a dim, intermittent light)

stara glimi — stars glimmer




glina — (kwo) argil; clay




globa — (kwo) globe

globale — (kwel) global

(cf. “globus”)




globus — (kwo) globe (a spherical model of Earth or any planet)




glodi — (zwo) gnaw




glok — (kwo) bell

gloki — (zwo) ring a bell, toll




gloria — (kwo) glory

gloria-ney — (kwel) glorious

glorisi — (zwo) glorify

glorisa — (kwo) glorification




gloti — (zwo) swallow

glota — (kwo) a swallow

gloting — (kwo) swallowing

misgloti — (zwo) choke (with)




glu — (kwo) glue

glui — (zwo) glue

gluing — (kwo) gluing

See also: lipi




glube — (kwel) deep, profound

glubitaa — (kwo) depth

fa-glube (glubifi) — (zwo) become deeper

mah-glube (glubisi) — (zwo) deepen, make deep or deeper

glubefai in akwa — to be deep in water, to draw much water

Ant.: chyen




gluhe — (kwel) deaf; dull, muffled, toneless

gluhitaa — (kwo) deafness

gluhe-mute — (kwel) deaf-mute

gluhisi-she — (kwel) deafening




glume — (kwel) gloomy, sulky, sullen, morose




go — (zwo) go (move; leave; proceed)

go a leker — go to the doctor

dela go hao — the thing goes good

go-she — (kwel) current

go-she wik — the current week

go-she dela — the current affairs

going — (kwo) going; course (onward movement, progress)

going de eventas — the course of events




godi — (zwo) serve (to be convenient or favourable), suit (answer a purpose, be of use)

It godi fo kwo? — What does it serve for?

godi-she — (kwel) suitable, good

godinesa — (kwo) suitability, aptitude




gol — (kwo) goal (point scored)

gol-geit — (kwo) goal (zone)

gol-geityuan — (kwo) goalkeeper




gola — (kwo) aim, goal, end, purpose, target

goli — (zwo) aim

goli banduk an koysa – to aim the gun at smth

fai gola an koysa – take aim at smth




golda — (kwo) gold

golda(-ney) — (kwel) gold, golden

goldika — (kwo) smth gold

goldisi — (zwo) gild




golfa — (kwo) golf




gonga — (kwo) gong




goni — (zwo) drive (cause to move; chase)

goni gurta a pilok — drive a herd to the watering place

goni afte koywan — pursue / chase smb

gona — (kwo) drive, chase, pursuit

See also: persekwi




gorba — (kwo) hump, hunch (deformity of the back in humans; the fleshy structure on the back of a camel)

gorba-ney (gorbe) — (kwel) hunchbacked

gorbe jen — (kwo) hunchback

gorbi — (zwo) hump, hunch, stoop

gorbi-ney — (kwel) stooping, stooped




gorila — (kwo) gorilla (ape)




gorla — (kwo) throat

gorla de botela — throat (neck) of the bottle




gosip — (kwo) gossip, scuttlebutt, tittle-tattle

fai gosip, gosipi — (zwo) gossip, tittle-tattle, tell tales

gosiper — (kwo) talebearer, gossiper




gova — (kwo) cow/bull

gin-gova (govina) — (kwo) cow

man-gova (govo) — (kwo) bull

yungova — (kwo) heifer/calf

govamasu — (kwo) beef

yungovamasu — (kwo) veal




grada — (kwo) degree, extent (cf. “gradus”)

in sertene grada — to a certain extent

gaograd — (komo) in a high degree

koygrad — (komo) to some degree

kwelgrad — (komo) to what extent

nulgrad — (komo) not at all, to no extent

syaograd — (komo) to a small extent

talgrad ke — to such an extent that




gradina — (kwo) a single stair, step, footstep; rung (step of a ladder)




graduale — (kwel) gradual

gradualem — (komo) gradually




gradus — (kwo) degree (a unit of measurement)

pet gradus sobre nol — five degrees above zero

dwashi gradus de frosta (garmitaa) — 20 degrees of frost (heat)




graf — (kwo) graph




grafika — (kwo) graphic

grafike — (kwel) graphic




gram — (kwo) gram

sto gram — one hundred grams




gramatika — (kwo) grammar




gran — (kwel) big, large, great

gro-gran — (kwel) huge, enormous

granfinga — (kwo) thumb

grantaa — (kwo) size, magnitude

stara do un-ney grantaa — star of the first magnitude

fa-gran (granifi) — (zwo) increase, become bigger/larger

mah-gran (granisi) — (zwo) increase, make bigger/larger, magnify

granisa/granifa — (kwo) increase

Ant.: syao




grandiose — (kwel) grandiose




granit — (kwo) granite




grapa — (kwo) cluster, bunch, a number of fruits or flowers growing along a common stalk

vingrapa — cluster/bunch of grapes




grasile — (kwel) gracile




graspi — (zwo) grasp (to take hold of or seize firmly; comprehend), grip

fa-graspi pa koysa — snatch at smth

graspika — (kwo) handle (haft, knob, bail, etc.)

dwar graspika — door-handle, door-knob

Syn.: samaji




grata — (kwo) grating, grate, lattice




gratis — (komo) gratis, free of charge




gratuli — (zwo) congratulate

gratula — (kwo) congratulation




grauli — (zwo) growl, snarl

graula — (kwo) growl, snarl




grave — (kwel) heavy, ponderous; (fig.) weighty, momentous, grave

gravitaa — (kwo) heaviness, gravity




gravela — (kwo) gravel




gravide — (kwel) pregnant, with child

gravida — (kwo) a pregnant woman




graviti — (zwo) (phys. and fig.) gravitate, be attracted, tend to a center

gravita — (kwo) gravitation

kanun de gravita — the law of gravitation




gren — (kwo) grain (seeds of crops; crops)

greninka — (kwo) a single seed of grain

grendom — (kwo) granary, barn




grey — (kwel) gray

grey-har-ney — grey-haired




grif — (kwo) vulture




grimasa — (kwo) grimace

grimasi, fai grimasa — (kwo) grimace, make a grimace, contort the face, make a wry face




grin — (kwel) green

grinka — (kwo) greenery, verdure




grip — (kwo) flu, grippe, influenza

faula-grip — bird flu




grivi — (zwo) grieve (feel sorrow or distress); mourn (om koysa — for smth)

grivi-plaki — lament, deplore

griva — (kwo) grief, woe, sorrow

griva-ney (grive) — (kwel) sorrowful, mournful, sad

mah-grivi — (zwo) grieve (make unhappy)

Ant.: joi




gro — (syao-komo) "very much, strongly" (augmentative/intensifying particle)

kitaba "a book" — gro-kitaba "a big volume, tome, folio"

hao "good, well" — gro-hao "great, excellent"

interes-ney "interesting" — gro-interes-ney "gripping, exciting"

pri "to like" — gro-pri "to adore, to like greatly"

Me lubi yu gro. — I love you deeply.

Lu en-mediti gro. — He became lost in thoughts.

gro-ney — (kwel) enormous, great, huge, vast




grog — (kwo) grog




grose — (kwel) thick

grositaa — (kwo) thickness

Ant.: dine




grugru, fai grugru — (zwo) grunt, utter a grunt




grumbli — (zwo) grumble




grunta — (kwo) soil, ground




grupa — (kwo) group

grupi — (zwo) group




gual — (kwo) coal

gual-muver — (kwo) poker




guan — (kwo) institution, establishment

fanguan — (kwo) dining rooms

frisiguan — (kwo) hairdresser's

kitabaguan — (kwo) library

printiguan — (kwo) printing house




guapi — (zwo) yawn

guapa — (kwo) yawn




gubra — (kwo) dung, manure, muck

gubrajuk — (kwo) dung-beetle




gudi — (zwo) honk, hoot, toot

See also: zumbi




guha — (kwo) cavern, cave




gukan — (kwo) chaff




gulam — (kwo) slave

gulamtaa — (kwo) slavery




gulao — (kwel) ancient, antique




guma — (kwo) gum; rubber; eraser

chabiguma — (kwo) chewing gum

gumabanda — (kwo) elastic (band), rubber band




gun — (zwo) work

gunjen — (kwo) worker

gunsa — (kwo) work, labour; job

treba go a gunsa — one must go to work

guntura — (kwo) work (product of working)

gundey — (kwo) working day, workday

guntaim — (kwo) working time

gunpaga — (kwo) salary, wage

gunshamba — (kwo) study (room)




gunah — (kwo) sin

gunahi, fai gunah — (zwo) sin




guran — (kwo) crane (bird)




gurka — (kwo) cucumber




gurta — (kwo) herd, flock, drove

gurti — (zwo) herd, flock

See also: trupa




guru — (kwo) spiritual teacher




guruhi — (zwo) thunder

shuta ek-guruhi — a shot burst out

guruha — (kwo) thunder




gusli — (kwo) gusli

baji gusli — play gusli

guslier — (kwo) guslar




gusta — (kwo) taste

gusti — (zwo) taste (have a taste; sample the flavour of smth orally)

gustike — (kwel) gustatory

hao-gusta-ney — (kwel) tasty




guta — (kwo) drop (of liquid)

guti — (zwo) drip, fall in drops

guting — (kwo) dripping




guverna — (kwo) government

guverni — (zwo) govern (exercise authority over)

guverner — (kwo) governor




guy — (kwel) expensive, costly

guytaa — (kwo) expensiveness, costliness




gwansi — (zwo) concern (have to do with, relate to, be of importance to)

sey dela bu gwansi me — it is no concern of me

gwansi-yen — (konekti) concerning, regarding

gwansa — (kwo) relation, connection, anything to do (with)

hev/fai nul gwansa a koysa — have no connection with smth, bear no relation to smth

bugwansa-ney (bugwanse) — (kwel) irrelevant, out of place, having nothing to do with

bugwansa-nem (bugwansem) — (komo) malapropos, not to the point




gwer — (kwo) war

gwership — warship

gwer akta — military action

gwer e salam — war and peace

gwer-stopa, gwer-pausa — armistice, truce

gweri, fai gwer — (zwo) make/wage war

gwerjen — (kwo) warrior

gwerlik — (kwel) warlike




gwin — (zwo) gain, earn, win

gwin anubav — gain in experience

gwinsa — (kwo) gain; income, earnings

Syn.: akwiri




gwo — (gramatika) "some time ago, at one time, earlier in life"

me gwo bi in Moskva — I have been to Moscow

Me gwo dansi hao wen me bin syao gela. — I danced well when I was a little girl.

Lu gwo zun sporta. — He used to go in for sports.




habar — (kwo) (piece of) news




habiti — (zwo) inhabit; dwell, live

nu habiti in toy gata — we live in that street

habita — (kwo) habitation

habitilok — (kwo) habitation (place) (apartment is “flat”)

habitibile — (kwel) habitable

buhabiti-ney (buhabiten) — (kwel) uninhabited

habitisi — (zwo) accommodate, lodge




haf — (kwo, syao) half

pa haf — by half, in half

haf-dey — (kwo) half a day

haf-ora — (kwo) half an hour

haf-luma — (kwo) twilight

mah-haf — (zwo) halve




ha-ha — (exklami, kwo) ha-ha, a sound made in imitation of laughter

fai ha-ha — laugh

See also: ridi, hi-hi




haifen — (kwo) hyphen




haili — (zwo) heal, cure




haishi — (taim-komo) still, as yet, so far

Me haishi bu he zwo se. — I have not done this yet.

Lu haishi safari. — He still travels.

Me es haishi ausen urba. — I am still out of town.

(cf. "yoshi")




haki — (zwo) hew, hack, chop, cut

haki ligna — chop wood

haki bay zian — cut with a sword

hakimarka — (kwo) notch




hakmi — (zwo) try (examine by judicial process)

hakma — (kwo) (court) trial

hakmiwan — (kwo) defendant, the accused, prisoner at the bar




halat — (kwo) circumstance; circumstances

al tal halat — under such circumstances




halka — (kwo) ring (a circumscribing object)

aurhalka — (kwo) earring

harhalka — (kwo) lock, curl, ringlet

halka-ney — (kwel) annular, ring-shaped

halkafinga — (kwo) ring finger (finger between middle finger and little finger)

halka-dansa — (kwo) round danse

fai halka-dansa — to sing and dance in a ring




haloo (halo) — (exklami) hallo (used also over the telephone)




halwa — (kwo) halva




ham — (kwo) ham (food)




hamak — (kwo) hammock




hampi — (komo) almost

Me jan hampi olo om to. — I know almost everything about it.

Li es hir, hampi oli. — They are here, almost everyone.




hamra — (kwo) hammer

hamri — (zwo) hammer




hamsi — (zwo) whisper

hamsa — (kwo) whisper




hamsta — (kwo) hamster




han — 1) (kwel, kwo) Chinese (relating to ethnicity, language or country)

hanjen — (kwo) Chinese (person of Chinese ethnicity)

hanlingwa — (kwo) Chinese language (syn.: putunhua)

2) khan

See also: Jungwo




handa — (kwo) hand

handagunsa — handwork

handi — (zwo) hand (to give or pass with the hands)




handak — (kwo) ditch, trench




Hanguk — (kwo) South Korea




hansa — (kwo) swan




hanzi — (kwo) Chinese characters, Hanzi




hao — (kwel, komo) good; well

Me sta hao. — I am OK.

Hao!— Good, OK!

Es hao. — That's good.

haotaa — (kwo) good

fo haotaa de jenley — for the welfare of mankind

lucha de haotaa e baditaa — struggle of the good and the evil

Bi hao! — 1) You are welcome! (a reply to thanking); 2) Bless you! (after smb's sneezing); 3) Good luck! (when parting)

Hao aksham! — Good evening!

Hao dey! — Good day!

Hao fortuna! — Good luck!

Hao nocha! — Good night!

Hao sabah! — Good morning!

Hao safara! — Have a good trip!




haohunten — (kwel) coherent

(Origin: hao+hunti+ney)




har — (kwo) hair, hairs (chevelure)

harinka — (kwo) a single hair

harhalka — (kwo) lock, curl, ringlet

frentahar — (kwo) fringe (part of the hair that hangs down over the forehead)

galsahar — (kwo) mane

(cf. "mao")




harem — (kwo) harem




harhari — (zwo) expectorate




harmonia — (kwo) harmony

harmoni — (zwo) harmonize (be in agreement, be harmonious)

harmonike — (kwel) harmonious

harmonisi — (zwo) harmonize (v.tr.)




hashish — (kwo) hashish




hasima — (kwo) defeat, loss

fai hasima — to be defeated




hasti — (zwo) be in a hurry

hasti-muvi — bustle, move hastily

hasta — (kwo) hurry, haste

pa hasta — hastily, in haste, hurriedly

hasta-ney (haste) — (kwel) hasty, hurried




hata — (kwo) peasant house (esp. in Ukraine and Russia)




hay!1 — (exklami) hi!




hay2 — (gramatika) let, may (wish; leave)

Hay Forsa bi kun yu! — May the force be with you!

Hay oni shwo to ke oni yao. — Let them say what they like.

(cf. "ba")




he — (gramatika) past tense marker

Me he yo lekti sey kitaba. — I have already read this book.

Yu bu he audi ku? — Haven't you heard?




hek — (kwo) pick, hack




helikopta — (kwo) helicopter




helma — (kwo) helmet




helpi — (zwo) help, aid

helpa — (kwo) help

helpi koywan — to help smb

kun helpa de — with the help of

voki helpa — call for help

helpike — (kwel) auxiliary

helpalingwa — (kwo) auxiliary language




hema — (kwo) blood

hema-vasa — blood vessel

hema-sosis — blood sausage, blood pudding

hema-pyasa-ney — blood-thirsty

hema-ney, hemaful — (kwel) bloody

hemi — (zwo) bleed

heming — (kwo) bleeding, haemorrhage




heni — (zwo) hate

hena — (kwo) hatred

henival — (kwel) odious




henri — (kwo) henry

sto milihenri — one hundred millihenries




hepata — (kwo) liver (organ)




herba — (kwo) grass; herb

lekiherba — (kwo) medicinal herb(s)

herbinka — (kwo) a blade of grass




heredi — (zwo) inherit, be the heir to; succeed (to)

heredi koysa fon koywan — inherit smth from smb

hereda — (kwo) heritage; inheritance

hereda-ney (herede) — (kwel) hereditary

hereder — (kwo) heir




hermete — (kwel) hermetic, sealed, airtight

hermetem — (komo) hermetically

hermetisi — (zwo) make hermetic

dehermeta — (kwo) depressurization




hero — (kwo) hero

herolik — (kwel) heroic

heroisma — (kwo) heroism




hesiti — (zwo) hesitate, falter

hesita — (kwo) hesitation




hev — (sta) have

Me hev dwa kitaba. — I have two books.

en-hev — (zwo) come to possess

hevsa — (kwo) possession; property, belongings




hey! — (exklami) hey! (used to attract attention)




hi — (gramatika) "exactly, it's...that" (emphasizes the previous word)

nau hi — right now

Den se hi me yao shwo. — This exactly I want to say.

Me hi zwo-te se. — It's me who did it.

Sey rasma bu es jamile. – Es jamile hi! — This drawing is not beautiful. – Yes it is!

Non hi! — No, no way!

Ya hi. — Yes, to be sure. Certainly.

Es toy hi jen. — It's that very person.

Me bu jan wen ta lai e ob ta lai hi. — I don’t know when he comes and if he comes at all.

Bu hi go! — Mind you, don't go!




hieroglif — (kwo) hieroglyph

hieroglifike — (kwo) hieroglyphic

hieroglifike skriba — hieroglyphic writing

See also: hanzi




hi-hi, hi-hi-hi — (exklami, kwo) tee-hee

fai hi-hi — (zwo) chuckle, giggle, titter, snigger




hili — (zwo) stagger, be unsteady, sway, reel

dushman en-hili — the enemy wavered




hima — (kwo) winter

hima geimes — the winter games




hina — (kwo) henna




hindi — (kwel, kwo) Indian (relating to Indians [of India], their language and country); Indian (person of Indian ethnicity); Hindi




hipotesa — (kwo) hypothesis




hir — (loko-komo) here

Lu es hir. — He is here.

Hir es hao. — It's good here.

Lai hir. — Come here.

Figaro hir, Figaro dar. — Figaro's here, Figaro's there.

hir-ney — (kwel) of this place, local




hiran — (kwo) deer

yunhiran — (kwo) young deer, fawn

gin-hiran — (kwo) doe, female deer

man-hiran — (kwo) buck, male deer

hiranmasu — (kwo) venison




hisi — (zwo) hiss

hisa, hising — (kwo) hissing




histeria — (kwo) hysteria

histerike — (kwel) hysterical




histo — (kwo) tissue (anat., biol.)




historia — (kwo) history (the aggregate of past events; science; record or narrative description)

historike — (kwel) historic

historier — (kwo) historian




hm — (exklami) hm, ahem




hobi — (kwo) hobby (activity that one enjoys doing in one's spare time)




hok — (kwo) hawk (predatory bird)




hokey — (kwo) hockey

hokey pleier, hokeista — (kwo) hockey player




hole — (kwel) hollow (having an empty space or cavity inside)

holika — (kwo) hollow

holisi — (zwo) hollow (out)

holifi — (zwo) become hollow

wangas holifi — the cheeks became hollow




hom — (kwo) home (habitual abode, birthplace, native land, asylum)

Syn.: dom




honeste — (kwel) honest (fair and straightforward in conduct, thought, etc., free from deceit or fraud, upright)




honor — (kwo) honour

pa honor de — in honour of

fai honor a koywan — give/pay honour to smb

honor-ney — (kwel) honorary (guard, etc.)

nohonor — (kwo) dishonour




hopak — (kwo) hopak (Ukrainian folk dance)




hor — (kwo) choir, chorus




horal — (kwo) choral




horisonta — (kwo) horizon

horisontale — (kwel) horizontal

horisontala — (kwo) horizontal (line)




hospital — (kwo) hospital




hosta — (kwo) host

hostina — (kwo) hostess

hosti — (zwo) host




hostel — (kwo) hostel (lodging house)




hotel — (kwo) hotel, inn




hovi — (zwo) hover (float in the air)




hu — (kwesti) who

Hu lai? — Who comes?

Hu zwo-te se? — Who did it?

hu-ney — whose




huanmi — (kwo) millet




huf — (kwo) hoof




huk — (kwo) hook

huki — (zwo) hook (catch, suspend, or connect with a hook)

See also: ahuki




huligan — (kwo) hooligan

huligani — (zwo) behave like a hooligan, engage in hooliganism

huliganing — (kwo) hooliganism




humane — (kwel) humane

humanitaa — (kwo) humaneness, humanity (the quality of being humane, benevolence — cf. “jenley”)




humanisma — (kwo) humanism (system of thought)

humanista — (kwo) humanist

humanistike — (kwel) humanistic, humanist




humel — (kwo) hop (plant)




humide — (kwel) humid, damp, moist

humiditaa — (kwo) humidity, dampness

Syn.: mokre




hunga — (kwo) hunger

fai hunga — be hungry

defai hunga — satisfy/appease one's hunger

hunga-ney (hunge) — (kwel) hungry

hunga-nem (hungem) — (komo) hungrily

hungi — (zwo) hunger, starve

al haf-hungi — half-starving




hunti — (zwo) join; come together; pool

suti-hunti — sew together

hunti a koywan — to join smb

hunta — (kwo) joining, junction

ferdao-hunta — railway junction

hunta-ney (hunte) — (kwel) joint, combined

pa hunta, hunta-nem (huntem) — (komo) together, jointly




huraa — (exklami) hurrah, hurray




husar — (kwo) hussar




huta — (kwo) hut (crude or makeshift dwelling or shelter; a shack)




hwan — (kwel) yellow

fa-hwan — (zwo) grow/turn yellow

mah-hwan — (zwo) make yellow

hwanka — (kwo) yolk




hwei — (zwo) repent, rue

hweisa — (kwo) repentance, penitence




i — (unisi) i...i... — both...and...

i lu i ela — both he and she

i sey-las i toy-las — these as well as those

(komo) too, also (relates to the following word)

I me koni lu. — I too know him.

Me jan i ela. — I know also her.




idea — (kwo) idea

idea-ney — (kwel) of idea, conceptual




ideal — (kwo) ideal

ideal-ney — (kwel) ideal




idente — (kwel) identical

identitaa — (kwo) identity, sameness

identisi — (zwo) identify (tr.)

identifi — (zwo) identify (intr.)




ideologia — (kwo) ideology

ideologike — (kwel) ideological




idiota — (kwo) idiot




idola — (kwo) idol (also fig.)




idris — (kwo) bird cherry




idyen — (komo) a little, a bit

idyen pyu hao — a bit better

Dai a me idyen akwa, plis. — Give me a little water, please.




igla — (kwo) needle




ignori — (zwo) ignore, disregard




igo — (kwo) yoke (also fig.)




ikra — (kwo) calf (of leg)




ilusion — (kwo) illusion, delusion

fai ilusion om koysa — cherish/harbor an illusion about smth

defai ilusion (desilusioni) — (zwo) become disillusioned/disappointed

desilusiona — (kwo) disillusionment, disenchantment, disappointment




imaja — (kwo) image




imajini — (zwo) imagine (to form a mental image of something; to envision or create something in one's mind; to use one's imagination)

imajina — (kwo) imagination




imbati — (zwo) strike (against), run (against), run into, bump into, stumble upon

imbati kontra chyenlok — run aground




imiti — (zwo) imitate

imita — (kwo) imitation




impedi — (zwo) impede, hinder

impedi-korda — hobble, fetter

impeda — (kwo) hindrance, impediment




imperia — (kwo) empire

imperator — (kwo) emperor




importi — (zwo) import

importa — (kwo) import, importation

Ant.: exporti




impresi — (zwo) impress (produce impression, affect strongly)

impresa — (kwo) impression




impulsa — (kwo) impulse




in — (konekti) 1) in, at (refers to location)

Me jivi in Rusia. — I live in Russia.

In sey shulin funga yok. — There are no mushrooms in this forest.

2) in, on (refers to time)

in petdi — on Friday

in same taim — at the same time (=samtaim-nem)

in lai-she yar — in the next year

3) in (other meanings)

Lu es in nove palto. — He wears a new overcoat.

kreda in boh — belief in god

in tal kasu — in such case

inen — (konekti-komo) inside, within

Inen dom es warme. — It's warm inside the house.

Me es inen, zin ba! — I am inside, come in!

inenklaida — (kwo) underclothes, underwear

inenlanda — (kwo) inland

inen-taraf — (kwo) the inside




incha — (kwo) inch (unit of length)




indexa — (kwo) index (number, ratio)




India — (kwo) India (also "Bharat")

See also: hindi




indigni — (zwo) be indignant

indigna — (kwo) indignation

indigna-nem (indignem) — (komo) indignantly




indiki — (zwo) indicate, point

indika — (kwo) indication (act of pointing out; sign, token)




individu — (kwo) individual (single person or animal)

individuale — (kwel) individual

individualisma — (kwo) individualism




indulgi — (zwo) be indulgent, make allowance for, forbear to inflict

indulga — (kwo) lenience, indulgence

indulgishil — (kwel) indulgent, lenient




infanta — (kwo) infant




infarkta — (kwo) infarction




infekti — (zwo) infect

infekta — (kwo) infection




inferna — (kwo) hell, inferno

inferna-ney, infernalik — (kwel) infernal, hellish




inflama — (kwo) inflammation (morbid condition)

inflami — (zwo) inflame




inflasion — (kwo) inflation (econ.)




infli — (zwo) inflate

infli balon/tara — inflate a baloon/tire

infla — (kwo) inflation (for the economical meaning “inflasion” is used)




influsi — (zwo) influence, affect

influsa — (kwo) influence




informi — (zwo) inform

informa — (kwo) information (also “info”)




infrarude — (kwel) infrared




Ingland — (kwo) England

Ingland-jen — inhabitant/citizen of England




inglish — (kwel, kwo) English (relating to ethnicity, language or country); English (person of English ethnicity); English language

Ob yu shwo inglish? — Do you speak English?




ingoma — (kwo) a kind of African drum




ingravi — (zwo) carve, engrave

ingrava — (kwo) carving, engraving




inisi — (zwo) initiate (to set going by taking the first step; to introduce into a sosiety, club, etc. by formal rites)

inisa — (kwo) initiation

Syn.: begin




inisiativa — (kwo) initiative




injenior — (kwo) engineer




inkarni — (zwo) incarnate

inkarna — (kwo) incarnation




inklina — (kwo) slant, slope; physical tilt or bend; inclination (act; mental tendency)

flanka-inklina — (kwo) list, heel, careen, bank

inklini — (zwo) incline (bend; slope; tend)




inklusi — (zwo) include

inklusi-yen — (konekti) including

inklusa — (kwo) inclusion




inkombri — (zwo) encomber, obstruct, block, hinder in passing




inkweri — (zwo) inquire, make inquiries




inloo — (gramatika) marks non-immediate relatives

mata-inloo — (kwo) mother-in-law

brata-inloo — (kwo) cousin

son-inloo — (kwo) nephew

kindocha-inloo — (kwo) grandniece

brata-inloo-inloo — (kwo) second cousin




inlubi — (zwo) fall in love (with)

Lu es inluben om/in ela. — He is in love with her.

inluba — (kwo) the state of having fallen in love




inmurisi — (zwo) immure, mure, wall up, brick up

(Origin: in+mur+isi)




inosente — (kwel) innocent, guileless, artless

inosensia — (kwo) innocence




inplas — (konekti) instead (of), in place (of)

Dai a me sey kalam inplas toy-la. — Give me this pencil instead of that one.

Go dar inplas me! — Go there instead of me!

Gai zwo inplas shwo. — One should act, not speak.

Lu plei inplas gun. — He plays instead of working.

inplasi — (zwo) be instead of, fill in, act as a substitute




insekta — (kwo) insect




inserti — (zwo) insert, put in, set in

inserta — (kwo) insertion




insidenta — (kwo) incident, occurrence




insisti — (zwo) insist




inspiri — (zwo) inspire (by divine instruction, poetic spirit, ideas)

inspira — (kwo) inspiration




instali — (zwo) install

instali swa — (zwo) install oneself

Afte instali swa in may favorite stula, me bu pri en-stan. — Once I've installed myself in my favourite chair, I don't like to get up.

instala — (kwo) installation




instinkta — (kwo) instinct

instinkta-ney — (kwel) instinctive




institut — (kwo) institute




instrukta — (kwo) instruction (directions on procedure, a direction to be obeyed — cf. “talim”)

instrukti — (zwo) instruct, brief, give instructions

instrukting — (kwo) briefing, instruction




insulti — (zwo) insult, affront

insulta — (kwo) insult, affront




integre — (kwel) integral, entire, complete, whole, all parts properly united and present

integritaa — (kwo) integrity, entirety

teritoriale integritaa — territorial integrity

integri — (zwo) integrate (intr./tr.)

integrisi — (zwo) integrate, render entire

integrifi — (zwo) integrate (intr.)

integrisa, integrifa — (kwo) integration




intele — (kwel) clever

nointele — (kwel) silly, stupid

(cf. "saje")




intelekta — (kwo) intellect

intelekta-ney — (kwel) intellectual




intense — (kwel) intense, intensive

intensisi — (zwo) intensify (tr.)

intensifi — (zwo) intensify (intr.)




intenti — (zwo) intend, purpose, have in mind

intenta — (kwo) intention, purpose

hao intenta — good intentions

pa intenta — on purpose, intentionally

sin intenta — unintentionally

intenta-ney (intente) — (kwel) intentional, deliberate, premeditated

intenta-nem (intentem) — (komo) intentionally, on purpose




inter — (konekti) between

inter skay e arda — between the sky and the earth

mutuale samaja inter jenmin — mutual understanding between the peoples

interen — (komo) between (them), in between; in the meantime




interes — (kwo) interest (attention, concern)

interes-ney — (kwel) interesting

interesi — (zwo) interest

se interesi me gro — it interests me greatly

fai interes om koysa — take an interest in smth

defai interes om koysa — lose interest in smth




interfai — (zwo) intervene, interfere

interfai inter gambas — get under smb's feet




intermiti — (zwo) intermit




internasion-ney — (kwel) international

Syn.: interjenmin-ney




interne — (kwel) internal

Syn.: inen-ney

Ant.: externe




internet — (kwo) Internet




interplexi — (zwo) interlace, intertwine

(Origin: inter+plexi)




interrupti — (zwo) interrupt, break off




intershanji — (zwo) exchange; interchange

intershanja — (kwo) exchange; interchange




interspas — (kwo) interspace

(Origin: inter+spas)




intertaim — (kwo) a period between

pa intertaim — (komo) in the meanwhile, meantime

Ta ve lai sun. Pi ba kahwa pa intertaim. — He'll be back soon. Meantime, have a cup of coffee.

(Origin: inter+taim)




interval — (kwo) interval




intervyu — (kwo) interview

intervyui — (zwo) interview




intrigi — (zwo) intrigue

intriga — (kwo) intrigue




introdukti — (zwo) introduce (begin, preface; put inside or into; bring into use; provide smb with a beginning knowledge — cf. “prisenti”)

introdukta — (kwo) introduction




intrusi — (zwo) intrude

intrusa — (kwo) intrusion




intuision — (kwo) intuition

intuision-ney — (kwel) intuitive




inu — (loko-komo) into

Ela lopi-te inu shamba. — She ran into the room.

Kan inu! — Look inside!

Nulwan mog transformi fer inu golda. — Nobody can change iron into gold.




inundi — (zwo) inundate, flood

inunda — (kwo) flood, inundation




inupon — (zwo) input, enter




inuspiri — (zwo) inhale, breathe in

inuspira — (kwo) inhalation

Ant.: ausspiri




invadi — (zwo) invade

invada — (kwo) invasion




invalida — (kwo) invalid (one who is sickly or disabled)




inventi — (zwo) invent

inventa — (kwo) invention




inverse — (kwel) inverse, inverted

inversem — (komo) vice versa

inversa — (kwo) the contrary, the reverse, opposite




investigi — (zwo) investigate, research, inquire into

investiga — (kwo) investigation, research




inviti — (zwo) invite

invita — (kwo) invitation




inyekti — (zwo) inject

inyekta — (kwo) injection




iradi — (zwo) find fault, carp, cavil, nag




iri — (zwo) be angry (om koysa/koywan — at/with smth/smb)

ira — (kwo) anger, ire, wrath

gro-ira — great anger, rage

ira-ney — (kwel) angry, cross

ira-nem — (komo) angrily, crossly

irisi — (zwo) anger, enrage

irisi-ney — (kwel) incensed, infuriated, enraged

irishil — (kwel) short-tempered




ironia — (kwo) irony

ironike — (kwel) ironical




isla — (kwo) island

islajen — (kwo) islander




islam — (kwo) Islam

islamjen — (kwo) Islamite




isoli — (zwo) isolate; insulate

isola — (kwo) isolation; insulation




it — (inplas-kwo) it (inanimate)

Es may tabla. — This is my table.

Me pri it. — I like it.

Me pon kitaba on it. — I put a book on it.




Italia — (kwo) Italy

Italia-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Italy




italiano — (kwel), (kwo) Italian (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Italian (person of Italian ethnicity); Italian language




iva — (kwo) willow




iven — (komo) even

ta bu jan iven to — he doesn't know even that

ta gun iven al morbi — even when he is sick, he works

(cf. "yoshi")




jabra — (kwo) jaw




jadu — (kwo) sorcery

fai jadu — do/practice sorcery, conjure

mah-jadu — (zwo) bewitch, enchant

jadujen — (kwo) sorcerer/sorceress

jaduman — (kwo) sorcerer

jadugina — (kwo) sorceress; witch

jaduleker — (kwo) witch-doctor, quack doctor

jadu-shwosa — (kwo) spell, exorcism




jagi — (zwo) be awake; vigil

jaging, jaga — (kwo) wakefulness, vigil

en-jagi, jagifi — (zwo) wake up (intr.)

jagisi — (zwo) wake up (tr.)

jagiser — alarm clock




jaka — (kwo) jacket (a short coat)




jaketa — (kwo) jacket (a piece of a person’s suit)




jal — (zwo) be on fire, burn

ek-jal — (zwo) burn, cauterize

ek-jal finga — burn one's fingers

jalsa — (kwo) burning

jal-she — (kwel) ablaze, burning

jalka — (kwo) fuel

mah-jal — (zwo) burn (to cause to be consumed by fire)

finjal — (zwo) burn down




jalusa — (kwo) jealousy

jalusi — (zwo) be jealous (of)

jalusnik — (kwo) jealous man




jami — (zwo) gather

jami amigas — gather friends

jami asembla — gather a meeting

jami fruta — gather fruits

jamitura — (kwo) that which has been gathered

(cf. "kolekti, rekoli")




jamile — (kwel) beautiful, handsome, pretty

ela es jamile gina — she is a pretty woman

jamilitaa — (kwo) beauty (property)

jamilina — (kwo) beauty (beautiful woman)

jamilo — (kwo) handsome man




jan — (zwo) know

Me jan to. — I know that.

Ta bu jan nixa. — He doesn't know anything.

en-jan — (zwo) get to know, learn

jansa — (kwo) knowledge

jan-sha, jannik — (kwo) connoisseur

(cf. "koni")




jangla — (kwo) jungle




janmi — (zwo) be born; give birth to

ta janmi in yar 1975 — he/shi was born in 1975

janma — (kwo) birth

janmadey — (kwo) birthday

janmalanda — (kwo) native land, homeland, motherland

janmalok — (kwo) native place, home

janmalingwa — (kwo) native language

janmamarka — (kwo) birthmark, mole

janming — (kwo) childbirth, delivery

janmer — (kwo) parent




janmog — (zwo) know how to, can

Me janmog gani, yu janmog rasmi, bat nu ambi bu janmog swimi. — I can sing, yu can draw, but we both cannot swim.

janmogsa — (kwo) ability, skill, know-how

(Origin: jan+mog)




januar — (kwo) January (also mes-un)




jaopay — (kwo) signboard




japat — (kwo) fit (seizure; outburst of emotion); gust

feng japat — a gust of wind

japat-ney feng — gusty wind




japunga — (kwo) dragonfly




jatile — (kwel) intricate, sophisticated




jawabi — (zwo) answer

jawaba — (kwo) answer

jawaba-ney — (kwel) reply, return

jawaba-ney leta — reply (letter), return mail




jay-jay — (exklami) hip, hip, hooray!

jay-jaysa — (kwo) cheers, hurrahing

jay-jayka — (kwo) cheer (a shout of congratulation)

Syn.: huraa




jel — (kwo) gel




jelee — (kwo) jelly




jem — (kwo) jam (sweet mixture of fruit boiled with sugar)




jen — (kwo) man (human, any man or woman)

jenley — (kwo) mankind

jen-ney — (kwel) human

jenlik — (kwel) human, humane (characteristic of human)

jenful — (kwel) crowded

auslandajen — (kwo) foreigner

lubijen — (kwo) loved one, lover

samlandajen — (kwo) compatriot

samtaimjen — (kwo) contemporary (coexistent in time)

sendijen — (kwo) envoy




jengun-ney — (kwel) man-made, artificial

jengun-silka — artificial silk




jenmin — (kwo) people (nation)

jenmin(-ney) — (kwel) people's

interjenmin-ney — (kwel) international




jenta — (kwo) folk, (a particular group of) people

islajenta es hao jenta — islanders are good folk

urbajenta sempre hasti — townspeople always hurry

gunjenta — (kwo) workpeople

yunge jenta — (kwo) youth, young people




jesti — (zwo) gesture, gesticulate

jesta — (kwo) gesture (motion of the limbs or body)

jestalingwa — the gesture language, pantomime

jesting — (kwo) gesticulation




jet-ney — (kwel) jet, jet-propelled

jet-avion — jet, a jet-propelled aircraft




jigyas — (kwo) curiosity, inquisitiveness

jigyas-ney — (kwel) curious (eager to learn — cf. “kuriose”)




jila — (kwo) vein (blood vessel; nervure; lode; a long strip of a different colour — cf. “vena”)




jinja — (kwo) ginger




jinsa — (kwo) jeans, denim




jirafa — (kwo) giraffe




jita — (kwo) victory

jiti — (zwo) win




jiva — (kwo) life

jiva-ney (jive) — (kwel) living, alive

jivaful — (kwel) lively, animated

jivika — (kwo) living thing/being/creature

jivi — (zwo) live

jivishil — (kwel) viable, tenacious of life

rijivi — (zwo) resuscitate, revive

Krista rijivi! — Christ has arisen!

rijivifi — (zwo) return to life

rijivisi — (zwo) bring back to life




joi — (zwo) be glad, be happy, rejoice

me joi al vidi yu — I am glad to see you

joisa — (kwo) joy

joisaful — (kwel) joyful

joisi — (zwo) gladden, make happy




joki — (zwo) joke

joka — (kwo) joke




jor — (kwo) joint, articulation




jota — (kwo) harness

joti — (zwo) harness




judi — (zwo) judge

judike — (kwel) judicial

juda — (kwo) judgement

judura — (kwo) judgement of court, adjudication

judiguan — (kwo) law-court; tribunal

judidela — (kwo) court trial, case

judista — (kwo) judge

prejuda — (kwo) prejudice




jui — (zwo) enjoy (feel with pleasure, revel in)

prejui — (zwo) look forward to, foretaste

juisa — (kwo) delight, enjoyment




juk — (kwo) beetle, bug

meyjuk — (kwo) cockchafer, may-bug

gubrajuk — (kwo) dung-beetle

lumijuk — (kwo) firefly, glowworm

saltijuk — (kwo) grasshopper

preijuk — (kwo) mantis




juli — (zwo) defraud, cheat, swindle

jula — (kwo) fraud (act)

julnik — (kwo) fraud (person)

Syn.: trompi




jumla — (kwo) clause, sentence (gram.)




Jungwo — (kwo) China

Jungwo-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of China

See also: han




jupa — (kwo) skirt




Jupiter — (kwo) Jupiter




jura — (kwo) law (legal system — cf. “kanun”)

internasion-ney jura — international law

jura-ney — (kwel) juridical, law, legal

jurista — (kwo) lawyer, jurist




jurap — (kwo) stockings

jurap-tasma — (kwo) garter




juri — (kwo) jury




jurnal — (kwo) magazine (periodical), journal

jurnalista — (kwo) journalist, newsman




jus — (kwo) juice; sap

frutajus — fruit juice

jus-ney — (kwel) juicy

jusnesa — (kwo) succulence




juste — (kwel) just (equitable, fair)

justitaa — (kwo) justice, fairness

nojuste — (kwel) unjust, unfair

nojustitaa — (kwo) injustice, unfairness




justifiki — (zwo) justify

gola justifiki medias — the end justifies the means

justifika — (kwo) justification




justis — (kwo) justice (the civil power dealing with law)




kabel — (kwo) cable (assembly of wires for electricity or a communications system)




kabina — (kwo) cab, cockpit, cabin (compartment for driver, pilot, or user)




kabluk — (kwo) heel (part of shoe — cf. “topuk”)




kabra — (kwo) grave, sepulchre, tomb

kabralok — (kwo) cemetery, graveyard




kabu — (kwo) cape, promontory




kada — (inplas-kwel) every

kada dey — every day

kadalok — (inplas-komo) everywhere

kadawan — (inplas-kwo) everyone

kadawan jan, ke... — everyone knows that...

Me inviti yu oli. Kadawan mog lai. — I invite all of you. Everyone may come.




kadena — (kwo) chain

kadena de montas — chain of mountains




kafee — (kwo) coffee house/bar/shop, café, cafeteria

kafeeyuan — (kwo) café worker




kafkaf — (kwo) cough

kafkafi — (zwo) cough

ek-kafkafi — (kwo) cough once, give a cough




kafsa — (kwo) cage (an enclosure made of bars)




kahwa — (kwo) coffee

kahwa bona — coffee beans

kahwadan — (kwo) coffee-pot

kahwabaum — (kwo) coffee tree

kahwameler — (kwo) coffee-mill




kaif — (kwo) delight, rapture, ecstasy

Syn.: juisa




kaila — (kwo) wedge




kaki — (zwo) do caca

kaka — (kwo) caca

Syn.: feki




kalabi — (zwo) tumble, somersault

kalaba — (kwo) tumble, somersault




kalafati — (zwo) caulk




kalam — (kwo) a writing tool; pencil

bolkalam — (kwo) ballpoint pen

kalamdan — (kwo) pencil-box

sikin do kalam — (kwo) penknife

kolorkalam — (kwo) colour pencil




kalamar — (kwo) squid




kalenda — (kwo) calendar




kalibra — (kwo) calibre, bore, gauge

kalibri — (zwo) calibrate, gauge

kalibring — (kwo) calibration




kalina — (kwo) viburnum, guelder-rose




kalka — (kwo) tracing paper; tracing paper copy; calque

kalki — (zwo) trace (copy)




kalkuli — (zwo) calculate, compute

kalkula — (kwo) calculation




kalkun — (kwo) turkey

man-kalkun (kalkuno) — (kwo) turkey cock

gin-kalkun (kalkunina) — (kwo) turkey hen

yunkalkun — (kwo) turkey-poult




kalme — (kwel) calm (cf. “kyete”, “trankwile”)

kalmitaa — (kwo) calm

kalmi — (zwo) calm (intr./tr.)

kalmifi (fa-kalme) — (zwo) become calm, calm down

kalmisi (mah-kalme) — (zwo) make calm, calm

kalmiser — (kwo) sedative

kalming — (kwo) calming




kalson — (kwo) long johns, long underwear, drawers




kalve — (kwel) bald, having but little hair

kalvika — (kwo) bald spot/patch




kalyum — (kwo) potassium




kama — (kwo) bed (for sleeping — cf. "kyar")

fai kama — go to bed




kamar — (kwo) girdle

pa kamar, in kamar — in one's belt

kamari — (zwo) girdle




kamarada — (kwo) comrade, mate




kamel — (kwo) camel




kamera — (kwo) camera (photo, video)




kamfer — (kwo) camphor




kamila — (kwo) camomile




kamin — (kwo) fireplace




kamina — (kwo) road

hao kamina — good road




kamion — (kwo) lorry, truck (motor vehicle)




kamisa — (kwo) shirt




kamon — (exklami) come on (an expression of encouragement, hurrying up, or disbelief)

kamon, shwo! — come on, speak!

kamon, go kway! — come on, go quickly!




kampa — (kwo) camp (outdoor place; group of people)

kampi — (zwo) camp




kampania — (kwo) campaign




kan — (zwo) look (try to see; to face or present a view), watch (view)

kan TV — watch TV

winda kan gata — windows face the street

kan sirkum — to look around

kan bak — look behind, glance back

ek-kan — glance quickly

kansa — (kwo) look (action of looking; expression of eyes), glance

al un-ney kansa — at first sight




kana — (kwo) cane, reed (bot.)

sukra-kana — (kwo) sugar-cane




kanal — (kwo) canal; channel




kanalya — (kwo) rascal, scoundrel




kanapa — (kwo) hemp

kanapafibra — (kwo) hemp fiber




kandela — (kwo) candle

kandeladan — (kwo) candlestick




kandidat — (kwo) candidate




kanela — (kwo) cinnamon




kanga — (kwo) comb (a toothed implement)

kangi — (zwo) comb

kangi swa — comb one's hair

trakangi — (zwo) comb (search thoroughly; look through)

kanging — (kwo) combing




kanguruu — (kwo) kangaroo




kanon — (kwo) cannon (artillery piece)




kanser — (kwo) cancer (disease)




kanula — (kwo) cannula




kanun — (kwo) law

kanun-ney — (kwel) legal

nokanun-ney — (kwel) illegal




kanva — (kwo) canvas




kao — (kwo) shackles, irons; handcuffs, manacles

handa-kao — (kwo) handcuffs, manacles

kaovati — (zwo) handcuff




kaosa — (kwo) chaos




kapa — (kwo) head; prow

spilakapa — pinhead

kol-kapa — head of cabbage




kapable — (kwel) capable, able

kapablitaa — (kwo) ability, faculty, capability




kapak — (kwo) lid (cover)

genukapak — kneecap, patella

winda-kapak — shutter




kapal — (kwo) skull




kapase — (kwel) capacious, able to hold

kapasitaa — (kwo) capacity




kapitan — (kwo) captain (milit., naval)




kaporal — (kwo) corporal (officer)




kapra — (kwo) cloth (woven fabric, material, stuff); linen

kotonkapra — cotton fabric

linkapra — linen cloth

mortakapra — shroud, cerement

kamakapras — bed-clothes




kaprisa — (kwo) whim, caprice

kaprisi — (zwo) be capricious

kaprisnik — (kwo) capricious/self-willed person




kapti — (zwo) catch, capture, seize

kapta, kapting — (kwo) capture (act of capturing), catching

kaptiwat — (kwo) capture (smth captured), prey

kapter, kaptika — (kwo) snare, trap

kapter, kapti-sha — (kwo) catcher (smb that catches)




kapushon — (kwo) hood (covering); cap (protective cover)

kalam kapushon — pen cap




karabe — (kwel) corrupt, tainted, spoilt; depraved

karabisi — (zwo) corrupt (taint, spoil; deprave, demoralize)




karada — (kwo) lathe

karadi — (zwo) lathe, operate a lathe

karader — (kwo) turner, lathe operator




karaf — (kwo) carafe, decanter




karakter — (kwo) character (distinctive quality of a person or thing)

karakter-ney — (kwel) characteristic

karakterisi — (zwo) characterize




karamel — (kwo) caramel

karamelisi — (zwo) caramelize




karat — (kwo) carat




karavan — (kwo) caravan




karbon — (kwo) carbon (chem.)

karbonisi — (zwo) carbonize

karbonisa — (kwo) carbonization




kardamom — (kwo) cardamom




kare — (kwel) dear (loved — cf. “guy”)

Kare amigas! — Dear friends!




karesi — (zwo) caress, fondle with affection

karesa — (kwo) caress




karga — (kwo) freight, cargo, lading

kargi — (zwo) freight




kariera — (kwo) career (occupation; the general course or progression of one's working life or one's professional achievements)




karikatura — (kwo) caricature

karikaturi — (zwo) caricature caricaturist

karikaturista — (kwo) caricaturist




karim — (kwel) kind (kindhearted)

bi karim — will you be so kind as, please

karimtaa — (kwo) kindness




karitaa — (kwo) charity, spiritual benevolence




karkasa — (kwo) framework, skeleton

See also: skelet




karke — (kwel) rough, coarse, rude, harsh, rugged

karkem — (kwel) roughly, coarsely, rudely




karmin — (kwo) carmine

karmin-ney — (kwel) carmine




karota — (kwo) carrot




karpenti — (zwo) carpenter

karpenter — (kwo) carpenter

karpentifah — (kwo) carpentering




karpus — (kwo) watermelon




karta — (kwo) card

nam-karta — (kwo) visiting card

armee-karta — (kwo) military ID

yuan-karta — (kwo) membership card




karton — (kwo) cardboard, pasteboard




kartun — (kwo) cartoon (animated film)




kartush — (kwo) cartridge (ammunition)

kartushdan — (kwo) bandoleer, ammunition belt




karwe — (kwel) bitter

karwitaa — (kwo) bitterness




kasa — (kwo) cash-box, till; cashier’s stand; fund

kaser — (kwo) cashier




kasak — (kwo) Cossack




kasam — (kwo) oath, vow

fai kasam — to make (take) a vow, swear

defai kasam — take one’s vow/oath back

tori kasam — break one's oath




kaseta — (kwo) cassette




kasha — (kwo) porridge, gruel, mush; squash; slush, mess, jumble

snega-kasha — (kwo) slush, mire




kaskasa — (kwo) scales (platelike dermal or epidermal structures — cf. "vaka")

kaskasinka — (kwo) a single scale




kasrat — (kwo) morning exercises




kastana — (kwo) chestnut




kastela — (kwo) castle




kasu — (kwo) case (instance, event)

in sey kasu — in this case

in tal kasu — in such case

in eni kasu (enikas) — in any case

in maiste kasu — in most cases

kasuale — (kwel) casual

kasualem — (komo) casually




kataloga — (kwo) catalogue




katapila — (kwo) caterpillar




katastrofa — (kwo) catastrophe




katedral — (kwo) cathedral




kategoria — (kwo) category

kategorike — (kwel) categorical




kati — (zwo) cut, clip, shear, mow, hew

kati herba — mow the grass

kata — (kwo) cut

kating — (kwo) cutting

harkata — (kwo) haircut

katiwunda (katura)— (kwo) cut, incised wound

kati-kili — (zwo) slaughter




katlet — (kwo) cutlet




katolike — (kwel) (Roman) Catholic, Catholical

katolika — (kwo) (Roman) Catholic (person)

katolikisma — (kwo) (Roman) Catholicism




katorga — (kwo) penal servitude




katran — (kwo) tar, pitch




katri — (zwo) cut out (form or shape by severing or incising, e.g. making a dress)

katring — (kwo) cutting out




kauda — (kwo) tail

in kauda de tren — at the tail of the train




Kaukas — (kwo) the Caucasus




kaulu — (zwo) consider, ponder, take into account

kaulu-yen — considering, taking into account

kaulusa — (kwo) consideration, taking into account




kaunta — (kwo) counter (flat surface on which money is counted, business is transacted, or food is prepared or served)




kausa — (kwo) cause (source, reason)

bu sin kausa — not without reason; not for nothing

kausale — (kwel) causal, causative

kausi — (zwo) cause

sinkause — (kwel) causeless, groundless




kaval — (kwo) horse

man-kaval (kavalo) — (kwo) male horse, stallion

gin-kaval (kavalina) — (kwo) female horse, mare

yunkaval — (kwo) foal

shma-kaval — (kwo) jade, nag

kavaldom — (kwo) stable, stabling

kavaler, kavaljen — (kwo) horseman, rider, equestrian




kavaleria — (kwo) cavalry




kavalier — (kwo) cavalier (a well mannered man; gentleman)




kavi — (zwo) dig, grub

kavi arda — dig the earth

kaving — (kwo) digging




kaviar — (kwo) caviar




kazan — (kwo) boiler

kazan-ki — (kwo) cauldron

vaporkazan — (kwo) steam boiler




ke — (gramatika) that (introduces subordinate clause)

Me jan ke yu lubi me. — I know that you love me.

Me dai a yu may kitaba fo ke yu mog lekti it. — I give to you my book so that you can read it.

Es kitaba ke me he lekti. — It's the book that I have read.




keb — (kwo) cab, cabriolet




kek — (kwo) cake (a sweet baked food)




kel — (gramatika) which, who, that (introduces subordinate clause, replaces subject)

Es gela kel pri gani. — This is a girl that likes to sing.




kela — (kwo) cellar




kelke — (inplas-kwanto) some (amount)

kelke kitaba — some books

kelke taim — some time

fo kelke taim — for some time

kelkes — several people; some people




kem — (gramatika) than

Toy gaseta es meno interes-ney kem sey-la. — That newspaper is less interesting than this one.

Yu lopi pyu kway kem lu. — You run quicker than him.

Me pri sey gaseta pyu kem toy-la. — I like this newspaper more than that one.

kem...tem — the...the

kem pyu, tem pyu hao — the more the better




kemia — (kwo) chemistry

organike kemia — organic chemistry

kemier — (kwo) chemist (person working in chemistry)

kemike — (kwel) chemical




ken — (kwo) can (vessel); tin can (also "tin ken")

pintaken — can of paint




kepa — (kwo) cap with a peak




kerna — (kwo) kernel




kerosin — (kwo) kerosene




kes — (kwo) cheese




ketla — (kwo) kettle (vessel for boiling water for tea)




ki — (syao) "little, a little" (diminutive particle)

dom – dom-ki — house – a little house

Jon – Jon-ki — John – Johnny

somni – somni-ki — to sleep – to take a nap




kiba — (kwo) fang




kibrit — (kwo) matches

un kibrit — a match

kibritdan — (kwo) matchbox




kicha — (kwo) mud

kicha-ney — (kwel) muddy, miry




kif — (kwo) funnel (utensil)




kiki — (zwo) kick

kiki-boxing — kick-boxing

kika — (kwo) kick




kikiriki — (exklami, zwo) cock-a-doodle-doo; to crow (utter the shrill cry characteristic of a cock or rooster)




kili — (zwo) kill

kila — (kwo) killing, murder

kiler — (kwo) killer




kilogram (kilo) — (kwo) kilogram




kilometra — (kwo) kilometre

dwashi kilometra per ora — twenty kilometres per hour




kilya — (kwo) keel




kimbimba — (kwo) creeps, goose bumps

fai kimbimba — to feel creeps




kinah — (kwo) louse




kinda — (kwo) child

kinda-ney — (kwel) child's, children's

kindalik — (kwel) childish

kinda-yash — (kwo) childhood

kinda-dom — (kwo) children's home




kinin — (kwo) quinine




kinjal — (kwo) dagger, poniard




kinkinda — (kwo) grandchild

kindocha — (kwo) granddaughter

kinson — (kwo) grandson




kino — (kwo) cinema (film; art of making films; movie industry)

kinoguan — (kwo) cinema (movie theatre)




kioska — (kwo) kiosk, stand, stall, booth




kiparis — (kwo) cypress




kipi — keep (maintain possession or condition of)

kipi mani in banka — keep money in bank

kipi sekret — keep a secret

kipi nada — keep a hope




kirka — (kwo) church (house; organization)

kirkayuan — (kwo) churchman, clergyman




kirsa — (kwo) cherry

kirsabaum — (kwo) cherry tree

dolchekirsa — (kwo) sweet cherry




kisan — (kwo) peasant

Syn.: agrajen




kisi — (zwo) kiss

kisa — (kwo) kiss




kisma — (kwo) destiny, lot

See also: fata




kitaba — (kwo) book

kitaba-tana — (kwo) bookshelf

kitabakin — (kwo) booklet, brochure

kitabaguan — (kwo) library

kitabashop — (kwo) bookshop

shma-kitaba — (kwo) trash/filthy book

kitabnik — (kwo) book lover, bookworm




kiwi — (kwo) 1) kiwi (bird); 2) kiwi fruit

kiwi-faula — kiwi bird

kiwi-fruta — kiwi fruit




klaida — (kwo) clothes, clothing, garments

klaidi — (zwo) dress, clothe

klaidi swa — (zwo) dress oneself

klaiding — (kwo) dressing (the activity of getting dressed)

klaidilok — (kwo) changing room, locker room

deklaidi — (zwo) undress

deklaidi swa — (zwo) undress oneself

klaidawahta — (kwo) checkroom, cloakroom

klaidatot — (kwo) wardrobe (garments as a group)

ahfi-klaida — (kwo) disguise

ahfi-klaidi — (zwo) disguise




klan — (kwo) clan




klapi — (zwo) clap

klapi handas — clap one's hands

klosi-klapi dwar — slam the door

klap! — (exklami) pop!, bang!

klapika — (kwo) popgun; fly-swatter; flapper

See also: slapi




klare — (kwel) clear (also fig.); light, light-coloured (cf. "yarke")

klare har — fair hair

klare dey — bright day

selfa-klare — self-evident

klarem — (komo) clearly

klarifi (fa-klare) — (zwo) grow light(er), grow/become clear, clear up

klarisi (mah-klare) — (zwo) clarify, make clear

klaritaa — (kwo) clearness, clarity; lucidity

klar- — light-:

klarblu — light-blue

klarhar-ney — fair-haired




klas — (kwo) class (in var. meanings)

klas-shamba — classroom




klasika — (kwo) classic, classics

klasike — (kwel) classical

klasiker — (kwo) classic (person)




klaspa — (kwo) clasp, buckle

klaspi — (zwo) clasp, buckle




klaun — (kwo) clown




klava — (kwo) key (of a keyboard)

klavatot — (kwo) keyboard




klaxon — (kwo) klaxon

klaxoni — (zwo) honk




klef — (kwo) key (an object designed to open and close a lock)

klef e kufla — the key and the lock

klefi — (zwo) lock (fasten with a lock)

beklefi koywan — lock smb up




klemi — (zwo) press closely together, squeeze, tighten, clench

klemika — (kwo) clamp, clip




klen — (kwo) maple




kleva — (kwo) clover




klienta — (kwo) client, customer




kliki — (zwo) click, clack

klika — (kwo) click, clack




klima — (kwo) climate




klimbi — (zwo) climb

klimbi monta, klimbi pa monta — climb mountains

klimbi uupar koysa— (zwo) climb up smth

klimbi nich — (zwo) climb down




klin — (kwel) clean (not dirty; unmarked; tidy — cf. "pure")

klintaa — (kwo) cleanness, cleanliness, neatness

klinisi — (zwo) clean, cleanse

treba klinisi shamba — one should clean the room

klinisa — (kwo) cleaning




klingi — (zwo) cling, hold fast or adhere to smth, as by grasping, sticking, embracing, or entwining

klingi a koysa — cling to smth

See also: lipi




klinika — (kwo) clinic (med.)

klinike — (kwel) clinical




klok — (gramatika) introduces time indication in hours

klok dwa — (at) two o'clock

kwel klok es? — what time is it?

klok ot e haf — half past eight

klok tri sin dwashi — twenty minutes to three




kloka — (kwo) clock; watch

murkloka — (kwo) wall clock

handakloka — (kwo) wrist watch

kloker — (kwo) watchmaker




klon — (kwo) clone

kloni — (zwo) clone

kloning — (kwo) cloning




klor — (kwo) chlorine




klosi — (zwo) close, shut

klosa — (kwo) closing, closure

klosi-ney (klosen) — (kwel) closed, shut

beklosi koywan — shut smb in, close smb (somewhere)




klota — (kwo) clot

kloti — (zwo) clot




kluba — (kwo) club (organized group)




kluki — (zwo) cluck, cackle




knopa — (kwo) drawing pin, thumbtack

knopi — (zwo) pin/fix with a drawing pin/thumbtack




knuta — (kwo) knout




koaguli — (zwo) coagulate

koagula — (kwo) coagulation

Syn.: kloti




koala — (kwo) koala




koalision — (kwo) coalition (union of persons, parties or states)




kobra — (kwo) cobra




koda — (kwo) 1) code (a system of signals or symbols — cf. “kodexa”); 2) coda




kodexa — (kwo) code (a systematic collection of laws or regulations — cf. “koda”)




kogniti — (zwo) cognize, come to know

kognita — (kwo) cognition

kognitive — (kwel) cognitive




koinsidi — (zwo) coincide

koinsida — (kwo) coincidence




koiti — (zwo) perform the sexual act

koita — (kwo) coitus, coition




kojansa — (kwo) conscience




ko-jen — (kwo) associate, helpmate

yu e yur ko-jen — you and your gang/mates

(Origin: ko+jen)




kok — (kwo) chicken, hen / cock

gin-kok (kokina) — (kwo) hen

man-kok (koko) — (kwo) cock

yunkok — (kwo) chick

kokmasu — (kwo) chicken (meat)




koka — (kwo) coca




kokete — (kwel) coquettish

koketa — (kwo) coquette

koketi — (zwo) coquet, flirt




kokori — (zwo) squat




kokosa — (kwo) coconut (palm or fruit)

kokosa-palma — (kwo) coconut palm

kokosa-nuta — (kwo) coconut (fruit)




koktel — (kwo) cocktail




kol — (kwo) cabbage




kolar — (kwo) collar (of shirt or garment — cf. “galsatasma”)




kolekti — (zwo) collect (mostly in the sense "to accumulate similar items")

kolekti kitabas — collect books

kolekta — (kwo) collection

kolekting — (kwo) collecting

kolektura — (kwo) collection (smth. collected)

(cf. "jami")




kolektiva — (kwo) collective (group, body)

kolektiva-ney — (kwel) collective, joint

kolektiva-nem — (komo) collectively




kolina — (kwo) hill

nichen kolina — at the foot of the hill

go nich kolina — go down the hill




kolona — (kwo) column




kolonel — (kwo) colonel

subkolonel — (kwo) lieutenant colonel




kolonia — (kwo) colony




kolor — (kwo) colour

kolor(-ney) — (kwel) coloured, colour

kolorkalam — colour pencil

kolori — (zwo) colour (cf. "pinti")

kolora — (kwo) coloration

koloranta — (kwo) colorant

dekolori — (zwo) discolour




kom — (gramatika) 1) as (in comparisons, references)

Lu mog gani sam hao kom ela. — He can sing as good as her.

Gran kom elefanta. — Big as an elefant.

Kom me yo shwo-te — as I've already said.

ga kom yu — just like you

kom regula — as a rule

2) as, in the capacity of

Ela gun kom leker. — She works as a doctor.

shwo kom skusa — say for an excuse




koma — (kwo) 1) comma

dwa koma pet (shifen) — 2,5

puntakoma — (kwo) semicolon

2) coma (med.)




komandi — (zwo) be in command; command, order

komanda — (kwo) command (order; the right to order)

sub komanda de koywan — under command of

komander — (kwo) commander




kombini — (zwo) combine

kombina — (kwo) combination




komenti — (zwo) comment

komenta — (kwo) comment




komersi — (zwo) trade, deal

komersa — (kwo) commerce, trade

komersa-relatas — commercial relations

komersanta — (kwo) merchant, businessman, trader




kometa — (kwo) comet




komike — (kwel) comic, ludicrous, funny, laughable




komitee — (kwo) commitee, board




komo — (gramatika) how

Komo yu sta? — How are you?

Komo yu nami? — What is your name?

Komo gao es toy baum? — How high is that tree?




komoda — (kwo) chest of drawers




kompania — (kwo) company (business firm; one’s companions, companionship)




kompanion — (kwo) companion (mate, one who keeps company with another person, one associated with another in an employment)




kompari — (zwo) compare (kun koysa — with smth)

bukomparibile — (kwel) incomparable; matchless, nonpareil

kompara — (kwo) comparison

komparike — (kwel) comparative




kompatible — (kwel) compatible

kompatiblitaa — (kwo) compatibility

Syn.: huntibile, konkordi-she, kombinibile




kompensi — (zwo) compensate (to counterbalance, to make amends for, to make up for)

kompensa — (kwo) compensation




kompetente — (kwo) competent

kompetensia — (kwo) competence




kompeti — (zwo) vie, rival, compete (cf. «konkuri»)

kompeta — (kwo) competition, rivalry

kompeter — (kwo) rival




kompili — (zwo) compile

kompila — (kwo) compilation




komplementa — (kwo) complement (that which is necessary to add to make a thing complete)

komplementa-ney (komplemente) — (kwel) complementary

komplementi — (zwo) complement

li komplementi mutu — they complement each other




komplete — (kwel) complete

kompletem — (komo) completely

kompletisi — (zwo) complete; replenish

kompleta — (kwo) (complete) set




komplexa — (kwo) complex (a whole)

komplexa-ney (komplexe) — (kwel) complex (of a complex)




komplike — (kwel) complicated, complex (not simple — cf. "komponi-ney")

komplikisi — (zwo) complicate

se komplikisi dela — this complicates the matter

komplikifa — (kwo) complication




komplot — (kwo) conspiracy, plot




komponenta — (kwo) component, ingredient




komponi — (zwo) compound, compose; consist (aus koysa — of smth)

komponi-ney (komponen) — (kwel) composite, compound, complex (made up of multiple parts)

kompona — (kwo) composition (general makeup; a mixture or compound)




komposi — (zwo) compose (construct by mental labour)

komposi musika — compose music

komposer — (kwo) composer

komposa — (kwo) composition (act; a work of music, literature or art)




kompot — (kwo) compote, stewed fruit

Syn.: fruta-piwat, fruta-chiwat




kompromis — (kwo) compromise




kompyuter — (kwo) computer (also "kompa")

kompyuterisi — (zwo) computerize




komta — (kwo) earl, count




komune — (kwel) common (shared), communal




komuniki — (zwo) communicate

komunika — (kwo) communication




kondamni — (zwo) condemn, sentence, doom (cf. “blami”)

kondamni koywan a morta — condemn smb to death

kondamna — (kwo) sentence; condemnation




kondision — (kwo) condition (requirement, term or requisite — cf. "stasa")

kondision-ney — (kwel) conditional




kondoli — (zwo) condole with (express or feel sympathetic sorrow)

kondola — (kwo) condolence




kondom — (kwo) condom




kondukti — (zwo) conduct (transmit, as heat, light, electricity — cf. "dukti")

kondukter — (kwo) conductor (as of heat, electricity, etc.)

kondukta — (kwo) conduction, conductivity




konekti — (zwo) connect

konekta — (kwo) connection

konektihisto — (kwo) connective tissue




konferensa — (kwo) conference




konfesi — (zwo) confess

konfesa — (kwo) confession




konfidi — (zwo) confide (to), entrust




konfirmi — (zwo) affirm, confirm, corroborate

konfirma — (kwo) confirmation, corroboration




konforme — (kwel) conforming, conformable, complying, compliant

konformitaa — (kwo) conformity

konformisi — (zwo) conform (tr.)

konformifi — (zwo) conform (intr.)




konfusi — (zwo) confuse

konfusa — (kwo) confusion




kongres — (kwo) congress (gathering)




koni — (zwo) be acquainted, know

Me bu koni toy jen. — I don't know that person.

Li bu koni mutu. — They are not acquainted with each other.

en-koni — (zwo) become acquainted

koni-ney — (kwel) familiar, known

kona — (kwo) acquaintance (state of being acquainted)

mah-koni — (zwo) acquaint

koniwan — (kwo) acquaintance (person)

bukoniwan — (kwo) stranger




konkesti — (zwo) conquer, subdue, subjugate

konkesta — (kwo) conquest, subjugation, subdual




konklusi — (zwo) conclude (arrive at a logical conclusion; bring/come to an end)

konklusa — (kwo) conclusion

pa konklusa — in conclusion, to conclude, to sum up




konkordi — (zwo) agree, concord, accord

Se bu konkordi kun to ke yu shwo-te yeri. — It doesn't accord with what you said yesterday.

konkorda — (kwo) agreement, harmony

konkordisi — (zwo) bring into accord / agreement




konkrete — (kwel) concrete (specific)

Ant.: abstrakte




konkuri — (zwo) compete (esp. in business)

konkuri-she — (kwel) competitive, rival

konkura — (kwo) competition




konsenti — (zwo) consent, agree

konsenta — (kwo) consent, agreement




konsentri — (zwo) concentrate

konsentra — (kwo) concentration




konsepti — (zwo) conceive (an idea), apprehend

konsepta — (kwo) conception, consept




konserta — (kwo) concert (musical performance)




konservi — (zwo) conserve (keep in a safe and sound state); preserve (of fruits, etc.)

konserva — (kwo) conservation, preservation

konservika — (kwo) thing conserved, preserve




konsi — (zwo) be conscious

konsa — (kwo) consciousness

konsa-ney (konse) — (kwel) conscious

konsa-nem (konsem) — (komo) consciously

dekonsi — (zwo) lose consciousness

dekonsa — (kwo) loss of consciousness, swoon, faint

rikonsi, rifai konsa — (zwo) revive, regain consciousness; come to one's senses

sinkonsitaa — (kwo) unconsciousness




konsili — (zwo) advise

konsila — (kwo) advice

konsiler — (kwo) adviser

dekonsili — (zwo) dissuade

konsilival — (kwel) advisable




konsilum — (kwo) council

fai konsilum — (zwo) take counsel




konsipi — (zwo) conceive (become pregnant — cf. "konsepti", "imajini")

konsipi kinda — to conceive a child

konsipa — (kwo) conception (formation of a zygote)




konsoli — (zwo) console (allay the sorrow or grief of), comfort, solace

konsola — (kwo) consolation




konstante — (kwel) constant

konstanta — (kwo) constant

konstansia — (kwo) constancy




konstati — (zwo) state, establish, ascertain, certify

konstati fakta — to state the fact

konstata — (kwo) statement, establishing




konstelasion — (kwo) constellation

Syn.: stara-figura




konstitusion — (kwo) constitution (the fundamental law)




konstrukti — (zwo) construct

konstrukter — (kwo) constructor

Syn.: bildi




konsulti — (zwo) consult

konsulta — (kwo) consultation

konsultanta — (kwo) consultant




konsumi — (zwo) consume, use up

konsuma — (kwo) consumption




kontakti — (zwo) contact

kontakta — (kwo) contact




kontempli — (zwo) contemplate (to look at attentively and thoughtfully)

kontempla — (kwo) contemplation




konteni — (zwo) contain, hold

kontena, konteniwat — (kwo) content(s)

kontener — (kwo) container




kontexta — (kwo) context




konti — (zwo) count (determine the number or enumerate the digits)

konta — (kwo) count, reckoning




kontinu — (zwo) continue

kontinusa — (kwo) continuation




kontinue — (kwel) continuous

kontinuitaa — (kwo) continuity




kontra — (konekti-komo) 1) against, contrary to

kontra may vola — against my will

pa kontra a koywan — in defiance of, athwart, to spite smb

2) opposite, in front of (in space)

Dom es kontra kirka. — The house is opposite the church.

3) against (contact from an opposite direction; against the background)

apogi kontra mur — lean against the wall

(syao) "against"

kontrakosa — (kwo) opposite, antipode

kontratoxin — (kwo) antidote

kontrajen — (kwo) opponent, adversary

kontrashwo — (zwo) controvert, retort, contradict

kontra-ney — (kwel) opposite

pa kontra-ney sahil — on the opposite side of the river

in kontra-ney kasu — in the opposite case

kontra-nem (kontrem) — (komo) the other way round, on (to) the contrary

Tak, bu kontra-nem. — So, not otherwise.




kontradikti — (zwo) contradict

kontradikta — (kwo) contradiction

kontradikta-ney — (kwel) contradictory




kontribu — (zwo) contribute

kontribusa — (kwo) contribution




kontroli — (zwo) control

kontroli swa — control oneself, to be self-controlled

kontrola — (kwo) control

kontroler — (kwo) controller




konus — (kwo) cone (figure)

konus-ney — (kwel) conical




konversi — (zwo) convert

konversa — (kwo) conversion




konvinsi — (zwo) convince

me es konvinsi-ney ke ta lugi — I am convinced that he is lying

konvinsa — (kwo) persuasion, conviction (act of convincing; a firmly held belief, opinion)

konvinsinesa — (kwo) conviction (the state of being convinced)

konvinsive — (kwel) convincing




konvoki — (zwo) convoke

konvoka — (kwo) convocation




konyak — (kwo) cognac




ko-operati — (zwo) cooperate

ko-operative — (kwel) cooperative

ko-operata — (kwo) cooperation

Syn.: ko-gun




kopa — (kwo) bowl (hemispherical vessel; a bowl-shaped object); goblet; calyx; flower cup




kopeyka — (kwo) copeck




kopia — (kwo) copy

kopi — (zwo) copy

kopibile — (kwel) copyable

koping — (kwo) copying




kopra — (kwo) copra




korda — (kwo) rope, cord

saltikorda — (kwo) skipping-rope




kordia — (kwo) heart

kordiale — (kwel) cordial, hearty

kordialem — (komo) cordially, heartily




korekti — (zwo) correct

korekta — (kwo) correction

korekta-ney (korekte) — (kwel) correct




korespondi — (zwo) correspond (answer in character or function, be adequate)

koresponda — (kwo) correspondence

koresponde, korespondi-she — (kwel) corresponding; respective

korespondem — (komo) correspondingly; respectively




koridor — (kwo) corridor, passage-way




korka — (kwo) cork (bark; stopper)

korkatirika — (kwo) corkscrew

korki — (zwo) cork

dekorki — (zwo) uncork

See also: tapa




korna — (kwo) horn (of animals, as material or as used in wind instrument)




kornanos — (kwo) rhinoceros

(Origin: korna + nos)




kornea — (kwo) cornea




korpa — (kwo) body (but not a group of persons or collection of particulars)




korporasion — (kwo) corporation




korpus — (kwo) corps

diplomatike korpus — diplomatic corps




korta — (kwo) court, yard, courtyard; court (all the surroundings of a sovereign)

kortayuan — (kwo) courtier (a person in attendance at a royal court)




korva — (kwo) raven




kosa — (kwo) thing




ko-senti — (zwo) sympathize (with), feel (for)




kosinus — (kwo) cosine (math.)




kosmo — (kwo) cosmos

kosmike — (kwel) cosmic

kosmokostum — (kwo) space suit




kosmonauta — (kwo) astronaut




kosti — (zwo) cost

Kwanto kosti? — How much does it cost?

kosta — (kwo) cost




kostum — (kwo) suit (set of clothes)




kota — (kwo) cat (feline)

man-kota (koto) — (kwo) male cat

gin-kota (kotina) — (kwo) female cat

yunkota — (kwo) kitten




koton — (kwo) cotton




kovi — (zwo) brood, incubate, hatch (cause to hatch)

kovilot — (kwo) brood




kovra — (kwo) cover, covering

sub kovra de nocha — under cover of night

tablakovra — (kwo) table-cloth

kovri — (zwo) cover

dekovri — (zwo) uncover

bukovri-ney — (kwel) not covered; undisguised




koy — (inplas-kwel) some

Dar ye koy jen, me bu koni lu. — There is some man there, I don't know him.

koygrad — (inplas-komo) to some degree, to a certain extent

Yu es prave. Bat sol koygrad. — You are right. But only to a certain extent.

koykomo — (inplas-komo) somehow, in some way or other

Me mus zwo se koykomo. — Somehow I must do it.

koylok — (inplas-komo) somewhere

May planeta es koylok dar. — My planet is somewhere there.

Pon ya yur bao a koylok. — Do put your bag somewhere.

koysa — (inplas-kwo) something

Me bu jan kwo es inen. Bat me nadi ke dar ye koysa kel es muy jamile. — I don't know what is inside. But I hope that there is something very beautiful.

koytaim, koywen — (inplas-komo) somewhen, sometime, some time

Lai ba koytaim manya. — Come tomorrow some time.

Ela gwo dansi hao koytaim. — She used to dance well formerly.

Koywen me ve hev un gran dom. — Some day I'll have a big house.

koywan — (inplas-kwo) somebody

Me audi koy vos. Dar ye koywan, baken dwar. — I hear some voice. There is somebody behind the door.

koyves — (inplas-komo) sometimes

May oma jivi ausen urba. Me visiti ela koyves. — My grandmother lives out of town. I visit her sometimes.




kraba — (kwo) crab (crustacean)




krai — (zwo) cry (shout — cf. "plaki")

kraisa — (kwo) cry (shout)

kraishil — (kwel) vociferous

kraiyuan — (kwo) town/public crier




kraki — (zwo) crackle, crack, crunch

kraking — (kwo) crackling, crack, crunch

krak! — (exklami) crack!




kran — (kwo) faucet, stopcock, tap, spigot

ofni kran — turn on a faucet




krapi — (zwo) snore

krapa, kraping — (kwo) snore, snoring




krashi — (zwo) crush, squeeze




kreati — (zwo) create

kreative — (kwel) creative

kreata, kreating — (kwo) creation

kreatura — (kwo) creature




kreba — (kwo) crawfish, crayfish




kredi — (zwo) believe

kredi (a) koywan — believe smb.

kredi in boh — believe in god

kreda — (kwo) belief, faith

malkreda — (kwo) superstition

krednik — (kwo) true believer, the faithful

kredibile — (kwel) credible, verisimilar, believable

nokredibile — (kwel) incredible, unbelievable

kredival — (kwel) plausible, credible, convincing




kredita — (kwo) credit (business, finances)

krediti — (zwo) credit




krek — (kwo) crack, crevice, fissure, cleft, split

kreki — (zwo) crack, cleave

kreki nuta — crack nuts

kreking — (kwo) cracking




krem — (kwo) cream

aiskrem — (kwo) ice-cream




kren — (kwo) horseradish




kresi — (zwo) grow (but not "become")

kresa — (kwo) growth

dekresi — (zwo) decrease

bekresi — (zwo) overgrow

livada bekresen bay flor — a meadow overgrown with flowers




kresta — (kwo) crest, ridge, top




kreta — (kwo) chalk




Krim — (kwo) Crimea




krimen — (kwo) crime (act)

krimenale — (kwel) criminal

krimenalitaa — (kwo) criminality; crime (practice)

krimenjen — (kwo) criminal




kripi — (zwo) creep, crawl




krisa — (kwo) crisis




Krista — (kwo) Christ

kristajanma — (kwo) Christmas

kristakreda — (kwo) Christianity

kristajen — (kwo) Christian

kristisi — (zwo) christen, baptize




kristal — (kwo) crystal




kriteri — (kwo) criterion




kritike — (kwel) critical (1. involving criticism; 2. crucial, pivotal, decisive)




kritiki — (zwo) criticize

kritika — (kwo) criticism

kritika-ney — (kwel) critical, of criticism

kritiker — (kwo) critic




krokodil — (kwo) crocodile




krome — (konekti-komo) besides, in addition to

krome to — besides that, moreover

Me es gro-fatigi-ney. Krome, taim yok. — I'm very tired. Besides there is no more time.

In sey kitaba ye pikturas krome texta. — In this book there are also pictures in addition to the text.

Krome lekti it, yu mog yoshi kan pikturas. — Besides reading you can also look at the pictures.

(syao)

kromegun — work additionally, make some money on the side

kromepaga — extra payment




krona — (kwo) crown (also fig. as of teeth)

kroni — (zwo) crown

kroning — (kwo) crowning, coronation

dekroni — (zwo) uncrown




kronike — (kwel) chronic




kros — (kwo) cross

krosi — (zwo) cross, intersect

krosa — (kwo) intersection, crossing

daokrosa — crossroads




krosta — (kwo) crust, incrustation; scab (incrustation)

pan-krosta — a crust of bread




kru — (kwel) raw, crude

kru masu — raw meat




kruele — (kwel) cruel

Syn.: brutale




kruga — (kwo) jar, jug, pitcher





kruma — (kwo) crumb

krumi — (zwo) crumb, crumble




krushi — (zwo) crash, collapse

krusha — (kwo) crash, collapse, wreck

krushisi — (zwo) smash, defeat, beat, shatter

krushisa — (kwo) rout, crushing defeat




krute — (kwel) steep

nokrute — (kwel) slightly/gently sloping

Syn.: abrupte




ku — (gramatika) interrogative particle

Me darfi zin ku? — May I come in?

Yu pri sey kitaba ku? — Do you like this book?

Yu lai ku? — Are you coming?

Yu ku lai? — Is it you who will come?

See also: ob




Kuba — (kwo) Cuba

Kuba-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Cuba




kuba — (kwo) cube

kubike — (kwel) cubic




kuda — (kwo) elbow (also a length of pipe with a sharp bend in it)

kudi, kudavati — (zwo) elbow

wekkudi koywan — elbow smb away




kufla — (kwo) lock (device for fastening)

pendikufla — padlock




kukaracha — (kwo) cockroach




kuki — (zwo) cook

kuking — (kwo) cooking; cuisine, cooking style

kuker — (kwo) cook

kukishamba, kukilok — (kwo) kitchen




kukla — (kwo) doll




kuku — (kwo) cuckoo

kuku fai ku-ku — a cuckoo cries "cuckoo"




kula — (kwo) bullet (projectile)

kuladan — (kwo) case (receptacle for bullet)

kulakin — (kwo) (small) shot

kulagron — (kwo) shell (projectile for cannon)




kulak — (kwo) fist

kulak-batala — (kwo) fistfight




kulmini — (zwo) culminate, reach the highest point

kulmina — (kwo) culmination




kulpa — (kwo) guilt

es may kulpa — it's my guilt

kulpa-ney (kulpe) — (kwel) guilty

kulpe om koysa — guilty of smth

kulpe versu koywan — guilty towards smb

sinkulpa-ney (sinkulpe) — (kwel) guiltless, innocent

kulpanesa — (kwo) guiltiness

dekulpi — (zwo) absolve (pronounce clear of guilt or blame)

dekulpa — (kwo) absolution




kultivi — (zwo) cultivate

kultiva — (kwo) cultivation




kultura — (kwo) culture

kultura-ney (kulture) — (kwel) cultural

kulturisi — (zwo) culturize




kum- — (syao) god- (related through christening)

kumpatra — (kwo) godfather

kummata — (kwo) godmother

kumson — (kwo) godson

kumman — (kwo) godfather of one's child; father of one's godchild

kumisma — (kwo) nepotism




kumin — (kwo) caraway




kun — (konekti) with, along with

Me yao go adar kun yu. — I want to go there with you.

Me pri pi chay kun milka. — I like to drink tea with milk.

Gina kun bavul. — Woman with a suitcase.

kunem — (komo) with oneself

Pren me kunem! — Take me with you!

Mani bu es kunem. — I don't have money on me (with me).




kunda — (kwo) butt (of gun)




kunila — (kwo) rabbit




kunpren — (zwo) take with one

(Origin: kun+pren)




kunshwo — (zwo) converse, talk

kunshwosa — (kwo) conversation, talk

kunshwoer — (kwo) interlocutor

Syn.: toki




kupala — (kwo) Midsummer Day




kupi — (zwo) buy

kupa — (kwo) purchase (act of purchasing or smth purchased)

kuping — (kwo) shopping

kuper — (kwo) buyer, purchaser




kuprum — (kwo) copper




kupula — (kwo) cupola, dome




kuraja — (kwo) courage, boldness

kuraja-ney (kuraje) — (kwel) courageous, bold, daring, audacious

kuraji — (zwo) dare, be bold, venture

kurajisi — (zwo) encourage, hearten

kurajnik — (kwo) man of courage

nokuraja — (kwo) cowardice




kuri — (zwo) court (someone of the opposite sex), woo




kuriose — (kwel) curious (odd, arousing interest because of novelty or strangeness — cf. “jigyas-ney”)




kurkuma — (kwo) turmeric




kurla — (kwo) curls

kurlinka — (kwo) curl

kurli — (zwo) curl (intr.)

kurlisi — (zwo) curl (tr.), twist into ringlets or coils

kurlisa — (kwo) curling, (hair-)wave

kurla-ney (kurle), kurlahar-ney — (kwel) curly, curly-haired




kursa — (kwo) course (of lessons, of lectures, of study, etc.); (fin.) rate (of exchange); course (direction)




kurte — (kwel) short

kurti — (zwo) shorten (tr./intr.)

mah-kurte (kurtisi) — (zwo) shorten (make shorter)

fa-kurte (kurtifi) — (zwo) shorten (become shorter)

kurtem — (komo) shortly, in short




kurtena — (kwo) curtain

kurteni — (zwo) curtain

dekurteni — (zwo) uncurtain




kurupe — (kwel) ugly, unsightly

kurupa — (kwo) ugly creature, ugly person




kurve — (kwel) curved, crooked, bent

kurva — (kwo) curve

kurvitaa — (kwo) curvature

kurvi — (zwo) curve, bend (tr./intr.)

kurvifi — (zwo) curve, bend (become curved), wind

kurvisi — (zwo) curve, bend (cause smth to change its shape into a curve)




kushale — (kwel) skilful, deft, dexterous, clever

nokushale — (kwel) awkward, clumsy




kushen — (kwo) pillow, cushion

kushenkuta — (kwo) pillow case




kusi — (zwo) bite

kusa — (kwo) bite

kusishil — (kwel) biting (tending to bite)




kuta — (kwo) tegument, coating, envelope (wrapping)

baumkuta — (kwo) tree bark

letakuta — (kwo) envelope (wrapper for a letter)

kuti — (zwo) envelop, wrap, cover, coat

dekuti — (zwo) uncoat, unwrap; peel




kuydi — (zwo) care, take care; be concerned, worry

kuydi kinda — care for children

kuydi flor — look after flowers

bu kuydi om to — don't worry about that

kuyda — (kwo) care, concern, worry

kun kuyda — with care

kuyda-ney (kuyde) — (kwel) careful, thorough

kuyda-nem (kuydem) — (komo) carefully, thoroughly

kuydishil — (kwel) careful, considerate, conscientious

sinkuyda-ney (sinkuyde) — (kwel) careless; carefree

sinkuyda-nem (sinkuydem) — (kwel) carelessly; light-heartedly, with complete unconcern

kuydaful — (kwel) preoccupied




kwadra — (kwo) square (polygon); check (square)

kwadri — (zwo) square (raise to the second power)

kwadra-ney (kwadre) — (kwel) square (but not "honest, fair")

kwadra-riza — square root

kwadras-ney, do kwadras — (kwel) checkered (divided into squares)




kwaizi — (kwo) chopsticks

chi bay kwaizi — eat with chopsticks

un para kwaizi — a pair of chopsticks

un ge kwaizi — a chopstick

Syn.: chi-stik




kwaki — (zwo) croak (of a frog, to make its cry)bakak kwaki — frog croaks




kwalifi — (zwo) qualify (characterize; certify)

kwalifa — (kwo) qualification




kwalitaa — (kwo) quality

kwalitaa-ney — (kwel) qualitative




kwalma — (kwo) fumes, charcoal fumes




kwan — (kwo) well




kwanshi — (kwo) ore

fer kwanshi — iron ore

kwanshilok — (kwo) mine (place where ores and minerals are extracted)




kwantitaa — (kwo) quantity

kwantitaa-ney — (kwel) quantitative




kwanto — (kwesti) how much, how many

Kwanto yar yu hev? — How old are you?

Kwanto it kosti? — How much does it cost?

Me bu ve pagi tanto kwanto lu yao. — I will not pay as much as he wants.




kwantum — (kwo) quantum (physics)




kwarza — (kwo) quartz




kwas — (kwo) kvass




kwasi — (konekti-komo) quasi, as if, as it were, as though

Ta shwo kwasi me bu audi hao. — He speaks as if I don't hear him well.




kway — (kwel, komo) quick, rapid, fast; quickly, rapidly, promptly

kway tren — fast train

kway kom bliza — as quick as lightning

kwaytaa — (kwo) quickness, rapidity; speed, velocity




kwaylok — (kwo) rapids




kwel — (kwesti) which, what (which one)

Kwel es lu? — What is he like?

Kwel de li? — Which (one) from them?

Kwel kitaba yu zai lekti? — What book are you reading?

Suy okos es do kwel kolor? — What color are her eyes?

Kwel bus go adar? — What bus goes there?

Kwelgrad? — To what extent?




kwereli — (zwo) quarrel (engage in a quarrel; dispute angrily)

kwerela — (kwo) quarrel, altercation, variance, brawl




kwerka — (kwo) oak




kwesti — (zwo) ask

kwesta — (kwo) question

kwesta-ney (kweste) — (kwo) interrogative

kwesta-nem (kwestem) — (kwo) interrogatively

kwesti-signa — (kwo) question-mark




kwiti — (zwo) abandon, forsake, quit

Bu kwiti me! — Don't abandon me!

kwiti kama — get out of bed

kwiti molya, gunsa — quit the wife, the work

kwiti fumi — give up smoking




kwo — (kwesti) what

Kwo yu maini? — What do you mean?

Kwo es se? — What is this?

Note. "What" as an adjective (before a noun) is "kwel"




kwota — (kwo) quota




kyar — (kwo) bed (a small plot of cultivated or planted land)

florkyar — flower-bed




kyete — (kwel) quiet; still (cf. “kalme”)

kyetem — (komo) quietly

kyetitaa — (kwo) quiet; still




Kyete Osean — (kwo) the Pacific




la — (gramatika) substantivator, substitute word, singular

Me hev dwa rosa. Sey-la es rude e toy-la es blan. — I have two roses. This one is red and that one is white.

Bat me pri hwan-la zuy. — But I like the yellow one most.

las — (gramatika) substantivator, substitute word, plural

Me hev mucho rosa. Me pri blan-las zuy. — I have many roses. I like the white ones most.




laba — (kwo) lip




label — (kwo) label

labeli — (zwo) label




laboratoria — (kwo) laboratory




ladi — (zwo) go right, go well; put right, put in order, fix up, settle, make smth OK

ladi dela — to settle an affair

olo ladi — everything goes good

ladi kun koywan — get on with smb, be on good terms with smb

lada — (kwo) OK-condition, harmony

deladi — (zwo) upset, disconcert




lagan — (kwo) zeal; diligence, assiduity, painstakingness

lagan-ney — (kwel) zealous; diligent, assiduous




lagi — (zwo) lie (be in horizontal position; be situated)

lagilok — (kwo) den, lair




laguna — (kwo) lagoon




lai — (zwo) come

me lai klok dwa — I'll come at 2 o'clock

laisa — (kwo) coming

lai-she — (kwel) coming; next

lai-she yar — the coming year

pa lai-ves — next time

lai-sha — (kwo) comer

ek-lai — (zwo) to suddenly arrive or appear




laik — (gramatika) marker of improvised image-bearing words including onomatopoeic




lak — (kwo) lake




laka — (kwo) varnish, lacquer

laki — (zwo) varnish, lacquer

laking — (kwo) varnishing, lacquering




lakey — (kwo) lackey (footman; servile follower)

Syn.: subnik




lakme — (kwel) dainty, tasty, delicious

lakme lokma — tasty morsel

lakma — (kwo) dainty, delicacy




lama — (kwo) 1) lama; 2) llama




lampa — (kwo) lamp




lan — (kwel) lazy, idle

lanfai — (zwo) be lazy, idle one's time away

lantaa — (kwo) laziness

lannik — (kwo) lazy fellow, idler, sluggard, loafer




landa — (kwo) land

landi — (zwo) land




Landan — (kwo) London




langusta — (kwo) spiny lobster, rock lobster




lansi — (zwo) throw, cast; hurl; launch

fa-lansi a/inu — throw oneself to/into, dash/rush to

lansa — (kwo) throw; launch

lansika — (kwo) slingshot, (boy's) catapult




lanza — (kwo) spear, pike, lance




lao — (kwel) old

laotaa — (kwo) oldness

lao yash — (kwo) old age

laojen — (kwo) old person

laoman — (kwo) old man

laogina — (kwo) old woman

laoyuan — (kwo) elder, senior

fa-lao — (zwo) grow old, age

mah-lao — (zwo) make old, age




lapa — (kwo) flap, tail, skirt




lapu — (kwo) burdock

lapuspika, lapuka — (kwo) bur, prickly husk of burdock

lapulif — (kwo) burdock leaf




larma — (kwo) tear (drop(s) of liquid from the eyes)




laser — (kwo) laser




lash — (kwo) cadaver, dead body




lasi — (sta) let (allow)

lasi me go, lasi me wek — let me go

lasi lwo — let fall, drop

lasi koywan zin, lasi koywan inu — let smb in

lasi me dumi idyen — let me think a little bit

Bye lasi me fali! — Don't let me down!




laska — (kwo) weasel




laste — (kwel) last (final or latest)

go pa laste — to go last

prelaste — (kwel) last but one, next to last, penultimate; one from the bottom




lata — (kwo) patch (piece of material used to mend or cover a hole)

lati — (zwo) patch




latif — (kwel) affable, polite, courteous




latina — (kwel, kwo) Latin (language, person)




laudi — (zwo) praise

laudi-worda — compliment, commendation

laudi-bashan — laudatory speech, eulogy

laudike — (kwel) laudatory

laudival — (kwel) laudable, commendable, praiseworthy

lauda — (kwo) praise




laura — (kwo) laurel

lauras — laurels




laureat — (kwo) laureate




laute — (kwel) loud

lautem — (komo) loud, aloud, loudly

bulautem — (komo) in a low voice, in an undertone

lautvos-ney — (kwel) vociferous, loud-voiced




lavanda — (kwo) lavender




lavina — (kwo) avalanche




laxe — (kwel) lax, loose, relaxed, slack

laxi — (zwo) relax, loosen (tr./intr.)

laxi muskula — relax muscles

laxi noda — loosen the knot

laxifi (fa-laxe) — (zwo) relax, loosen (become loose or less tense)

laxifa — (kwo) relaxation

laxisi (mah-laxe) — (zwo) relax, loosen (make smth loose or less tense)

laxisi arda — loosen soil




laza — (kwo) rubbish, waste, trash, garbage, litter

laza monton — scrapheap

lazadan — (kwo) dustbin, garbage can, trash can

lazalok, lazika — (kwo) dump




lefte — (kwel) left

lefta — (kwo) left, left side

a lefta — (loko-komo) (to the) left

Kan a lefta! — Look left!

Hir treba turni a lefta. — Here one should turn left.

leften — (konekti-komo) at the left (of)

Leften ye garden. — There is a garden at the left.

Garden es leften dom. — The garden is to the left of the house.




legenda — (kwo) legend

legenda-ney, legendare — (kwel) legendary




legum — (kwo) vegetable

legumgarden — (kwo) vegetable garden




leki — (zwo) cure, heal, treat (care for medicinally)

leking — (kwo) cure, healing, (medical) treatment

lekika — (kwo) medicine, drug, cure

lekiguan — (kwo) clinic, medical facility

leker — (kwo) physician, doctor




lekti — (zwo) read

lekting — (kwo) reading (act)

lektiwat — (kwo) reading (material to read)

lekter, lekti-sha — (kwo) reader (person)

lektibile — (kwel) readable, legible

lekter, lektika — (kwo) reader (device)




lektia — (kwo) lecture




leleka — (kwo) stork




lemar — (kwo) cupboard, closet, press, bookcase, wardrobe

lemarkin — (kwo) nightstand, bedside table




lenga — (kwo) cold (condition of low temperature)

lenga-ney (lenge) — (kwel) cold

lenge akwa — cold water

es lenge hir — it's cold here

me sta lenge — I am cold, I feel cold

lenga-nem (lengem) — (komo) coldly

jawabi lengem — answer chilly / stiffly

lengitaa — (kwo) coldness

lengi — (zwo) cool (intr./tr.)

lengifi (fa-lenge) — (zwo) cool (get colder, lose heat)

lengisi (mah-lenge) — (zwo) cool (make cooler)

lengiser — (kwo) cooler

lengitura — (kwo) cold (illness)

pai/fai lengitura — catch a cold




lente — (kwel) slow

lentem — (komo) slowly




lentila — (kwo) lentil




leon — (kwo) lion

gin-leon — (kwo) lioness

man-leon — (kwo) male lion




lepi — (zwo) mould, model, to make a model (in clay, wax)

leping — (kwo) moulding, modelling

lepitura — (kwo) smth moulded, modelled




lerni — (zwo) learn (but not "get to know, find out" — cf. "en-jan")

lerner — (kwo) learner

lernikitaba — (kwo) textbook, manual

lerna, lerning — (kwo) learning

lerni-ney — (kwel) learned, erudite

lerninesa — (kwo) learnedness, erudition

delerni — (zwo) unlearn




leson — (kwo) lesson

dai leson — give a lesson

dukti leson — conduct a lesson




lesti — (zwo) flatter, adulate

lesta — (kwo) flattery, adulation

lestinik — (kwo) flatterer, adulator




leta — (kwo) letter (written message)

letakuta — (kwo) envelope

letayuan — (kwo) mailman, postman

fai leta — (zwo) correspond (exchange messages)




letnan — (kwo) lieutenant




letra — (kwo) letter (a symbol in an alphabet)

letravati — (zwo) spell (letters)




leuga — (kwo) league (unit)




leve — (kwel) light (not heavy; gentle); slight

leve musika — light music

levifi (fa-leve) — (zwo) lighten (become light or lighter in weight or seriousness)

levisi (mah-leve) — (zwo) lighten (make lighter; alleviate)

levifa/levisa — (kwo) alleviation; relief




lexika — (kwo) vocabulary (words of a language collectively)

lexike — (kwel) lexical




lexikon — (kwo) dictionary, vocabulary




ley1 — (inplas-kwel) their




ley2 — (syao) «kind, sort, type»

jen man — jenley mankind

gaoley talim — higher education




li — (inplas-kwo) they, them

Li gani hao. — They sing well.

Me shwo danke a li. — I thank them.

li-ney, ley — (inplas-kwel) their

Es li-ney kinda, bu nu-ney. — This is their child, not ours.




libre — (kwel) free

libritaa — (kwo) liberty, freedom

librifi (fa-libre) — (zwo) become/get free

librisi (mah-libre) — (zwo) set free, liberate

librifa/librisa — (kwo) liberation




lider — (kwo) leader (head of; best or dominant person/thing)

lideri — (zwo) take first place, be in the lead

lidertaa — (kwo) leadership




lif — (kwo) leaf; sheet (piece of paper; flat layer of solid material)

liftot — (kwo) foliage

lifi — (zwo) browse, leaf through

liflwosa — (kwo) leaf fall




lifti — (zwo) raise, lift, elevate

ek-lifti plechas — shrug one's shoulders

fa-lifti on pedafinga — rise on tiptoe

pren-lifti — pick up

lifta — (kwo) rise, elevation

lifti swa — (zwo) rise (to one's feets), get up

liftika — (kwo) lift, elevator




ligi — (zwo) tie, tie up, fasten, bind, link

ligi doga — tie up a dog

ligi bay wada — bind by promise

liga — (kwo) tie, bond; league

Jenmin Liga — The League of Nations

deligi — (zwo) untie, unfasten, unbind

fa-deligi — come untied




ligna — (kwo) timber; wood; firewood

lignatabla — wooden table

lignapuda — sawdust

haki ligna — chop wood

ligna-ney (ligne) — (kwel) wooden, ligneous




lihua — (kwo) ploughshare

Syn.: pluga-sikin




liki — (zwo) leak

lika — (kwo) leak, leakage




likwe — (kwel) liquid, fluid

likwa — (kwo) liquid, fluid

likwi — (zwo) melt (tr./intr.)

likwifi (fa-likwe) — (zwo) melt, thaw

likwisi (mah-likwe) — (zwo) melt (make liquid)




lilak — (kwo) lilac




lima — (kwo) lime (citrus fruit)




limita — (kwo) limit

limiti — (zwo) limit, confine

limiti swa — (zwo) limit/restrict oneself

limiting — (kwo) limitation

limita-ney — (kwel) limit, maximum, top




limon — (kwo) lemon




limonada — (kwo) lemonade




limpa — (kwo) spleen (organ — cf. “splin”)




lin — (kwo) flax

linkapra — linen cloth




linda — (kwo) linden




lingwa — (kwo) language




lingwistika — (kwo) linguistics

lingwistike — (kwel) linguistic




linia — (kwo) line (writing, printing, telegraphic, genealogical, military)

gas-linia — gas pipeline

linisi — (zwo) line, rule (paper, etc.)

See also: reka




linka — (kwo) hyperlink, link




linsa — (kwo) lens




lipi — (zwo) adhere (stick fast by or as if by glue) (intr.)

lipisi — (zwo) adhere, stick (fasten or attach with an adhesive material)

lipi-she — (kwel) adhesive, sticky, glutinous




lisan — (kwo) tongue (organ in the mouth)




lisensa — (kwo) license (permission)

lisensi — (zwo) license




lisi — (zwo) lick

lisi-pi — (zwo) lap (take in a liquid with the tongue)

Kota he lisi-pi milka. — The cat lapped up the milk.




lisipedi — (zwo) cringe, grovel, fawn, toady

lisipednik — (kwo) toady, lickspittle, bootlicker, sycophant

(Origin: lisi+peda)




lista — (kwo) list




literatura — (kwo) literature

literatura-ney (literature) — (kwo) literary




liti — (zwo) pour

misliti — (zwo) spill

See also: sipi




litra — (kwo) litre




liva — (kwo) lever




livada — (kwo) meadow




lizarda — (kwo) lizard




lo — (gramatika) imparts the meaning of general notion

Es lo zuy muhim. — It's the most important thing.

Lo tal mus bu repeti. — Such a thing must not repeat.

lo sirkum — milieu, surroundings, environment

lo longtaim-bak — days of yore




loda — (kwo) load, burden

lodi — (zwo) load

loding — (kwo) loading

nichlodi — (zwo) download

uuparlodi — (zwo) upload




lof — (kwo) loaf (a block of baked bread)




logaritma — (kwo) logarithm




logika — (kwo) logic

logike — (kwel) logical




logotip — (kwo) logotype




loja — (kwo) lodge (a local chapter of certain fraternal organizations); box (theater)




lok — (syao) «place»

ahfilok — (kwo) hiding-place

habitilok — (kwo) living place, habitation

twolilok — (kwo) threshing-floor

enilok — (inplas-komo) anywhere

a enilok — to any place

kadalok — (inplas-komo) everywhere

koylok — (inplas-komo) somewhere

a koylok — to some place

nullok — (inplas-komo) nowhere

a nullok — to nowhere, nowhither

otrelok — (inplas-komo) elsewhere

a otrelok — elsewhither

plurilok — (inplas-komo) in several places

samlok — (inplas-komo) at the same place, ibidem

kwellok — (kwesti) where




loki — (zwo) be situated/located

en-loki — (zwo) find oneself, come to be

lokisi — (zwo) place, station, situate, deploy




lokma — (kwo) morsel, a piece (of food)




loko — (kwo) place (location), spot, site; locality (cf. “plasa”)

lokale — (kwel) lokal

lokalisi — (zwo) lokalize




lokomotiva — (kwo) locomotive




lokwa — (kwo) puddle




lon — (kwo) loan (smth lent, esp. money)

loni — (kwo) loan, lend; borrow

lon-nem — (komo) on loan

pren lon-nem — borrow

dai lon-nem — lend

londaier — (kwo) lender, creditor

lonprener — (kwo) borrower




longe — (kwel) lengthy; long

longem — (komo) at length; for a long time

longitaa — (kwo) length

long- — long-: longhar-ney — (kwel) longhair




longtaim — (taim-komo) (during) long time

lu jivi hir yo longtaim — he lives here for a long time

se eventi longtaim bak — this happened long ago

longtaim bifoo — long before

longtaim-ney — (kwel) long-term, prolonged (cf. “dave”)




lopata — (kwo) spade (digging tool)




lopi — (zwo) run

flai-lopi — scud, rush along

Ta zin shamba al haf-lopi. — He rushed into the room.

lopa, loping — (kwo) run, running

loper — (kwo) runner




lorda — (kwo) lord




lot — (kwo) lot (articles sold as one unit; a number of associated people or things — cf. "kisma")




loyale — (kwel) loyal




loza — (kwo) mule (the hybrid offspring of a male donkey and a female horse)




lu — (inplas-kwo) he, him

Lu shwo hao. — He speaks well.

Me kredi a lu. — I believe him.

Me shwo danke a lu. — I thank him.

lu-ney, luy — (inplas-kwel) his

Es lu-ney kitaba, bu yu-ney. — It's his book, not yours.




lubi — (zwo) love

luba — (kwo) love

lubaful — (kwel) loving, affectionate

en-lubi — (zwo) fall in love

lubijen — (kwo) lover, loved one

lubijenta — (kwo) lovers

swa-luba — (kwo) self-love




lubriki — (zwo) lubricate

lubrikanta — (kwo) lubricant




luchi — (zwo) struggle; wrestle

lucha — (kwo) struggle

luching — (kwo) wrestling (sport)

lucher — (kwo) wrestler, struggler, fighter




lugi — (zwo) lie (tell lies)

luga — (kwo) lie, lies

luger — (kwo) liar

lugishil — (kwel) tending to lie




luk — (kwo) onion




luku — (kwo) hatchway, hatch




luli — (zwo) lull to sleep, to soothe, compose, quiet

luligana — (kwo) lullaby




luma — (kwo) light

mah-on luma — turn on the light

lumi — (zwo) give light, shine

lumisi — (zwo) light, illuminate

lumisa — (kwo) illumination

luma-ney — (kwel) light (having light)

lumaful — (kwel) luminous, full of light




luna — (kwo) moon

luna-dilim — (kwo) crescent




lung — (kwo) Chinese dragon




lup — (kwo) loop




luserna — (kwo) lucerne, alfalfa




lushuy — (kwo) dew




lusi — (zwo) lose (also fail to win)

lusi taim — lose time

lusi dao — lose one's way, get lost

lusa — (kwo) loss




luta — (kwo) lute




luxa — (kwo) luxury

luxa-auto — a luxury car

luxa-ney (luxe) — (kwel) luxurious

luxika — (kwo) something luxurious




lwaba — (kwo) salivary foam or sweat froth

lwabi — (zwo) lather, froth

kaval lwabi — horse lathered up

doga lwabi — dog frothed at the mouth




lwo — (zwo) 1) fall, drop, come down

lasi lwo — let fall

lwosa — (kwo) fall, drop

mah-lwo — (zwo) throw down, drop

2) conveys the depth of transition into another state/condition:

lwo in plaki — burst into tears

lwo in ridi — burst out laughing; start roaring with laughter

lwo in pyani — take to hard drinking

lwo in lekti nove kitaba — to become thoroughly engrossed in reading a new book




lyan — (zwo) be attached (to smth/smb — а koywan/koysa), be affectionate (towards)

li lyan a mutu — they are attached to each other

lyan-ney — (kwel) in mental bonding, attached, devoted

lyansa — (kwo) attachment, affection, mental/emotional bonding




lyu — (zwo) leave (but not "depart")

lyu kinda in dom — leave children at home

lyu trasa — leave traces

lyu pan a amiga — leave bread to a friend

lyu me sole — leave me alone

lyu dwar ofni-ney — leave the door open




mach — (kwo) match (sporting event)




madam — (kwo) madam, lady (a polite form of addressing or naming a woman)

See also: sinior, mis




madu — (kwo) honey




madyar — (kwel, kwo) Hungarian; Hungarian (person); the Hungarian language




maestro — (kwo) maestro (musical master)




maga — (kwo) mug (large cup)




magari — (gramatika, exklami) I wish, if only

Magari lu lai! — If only he would come!

Magari bi tak! — I wish it were so!

Magari nu hev-te sey mani dan! — I wish we had that money then!

nomagari

Nomagari tren tardi. — I hope the train isn't late.

Nomagari! — God forbid!




magia — (kwo) magic

magike — (kwel) magical

magier — (kwo) magician

Syn.: jadu




magnet — (kwo) magnet

magnet-felda — magnetic field

magnetisi — (zwo) magnetize (make magnetic)

magnetifi — (zwo) magnetize (grow magnetic)

magnetisa/magnetifa — (kwo) magnetization




magnifike — (kwel) magnificent, splendid, grand

Syn.: briliante, gro-hao




magre — (kwel) meagre, lean (also poor, deficient or inferior in amount, quality or extent; scanty; inadequate; unsatisfying)




mah — (syao-gramatika) «make» (causative particle)

gran – mah-gran — big – to make bigger, increase

hao – mah-hao — good – to make better, improve

blan – mah-blan — white – to whiten

jal – mah-jal — to burn, be burning – to burn (smth)

chi – mah-chi — to eat – to feed

lwo – mah-lwo — to fall – to drop (smth)

mah kaval lopi — make the horse run

Me mah swa zwo se. — I make myself do it.

Se ve mah yu triste. — This will make you sad.




mahan — (kwel) majestic, grand, stately, sublime

mahantaa — (kwo) majesty, grandeur, greatness

Luy Mahantaa — His Majesty




mahanatmitaa — (kwo) magnanimity

(Origin: mahan+atma+(i)taa)




mahta — (kwo) might, power, authority (cf. "potensia")

mahtaful — (kwel) mighty, powerful

sinmahta-ney — (kwel) powerless, impotent, helpless

pa sinmahta-ney furia — in impotent rage




maidan — (kwo) square (open place in town); ground, area

futbol maidan — futball field




maimun — (kwo) monkey




maini — (zwo) mean (have in mind; signify)

Kwo yu maini bay to? — What do you mean by that?

Syn.: signifi




mais — (kwo) maize, corn




maiste — (gramatika) most (superlative form from "mucho")

lu hev maiste mani — he has most money

in maiste kasu — in most cases

maiste parta — the most part

maiste taim — the most time, most of the time

maiste jen — most people

maistegrad — (komo) to the greatest extent

maistem — (komo) mostly, by and large

maista, maistitaa — (kwo) majority




majbur — (sta) be compelled to, have to, there is no other way but

En-pluvi, nu majbur go a dom. — It begins to rain, we have to go home.

Meteo es bade, majbur deri avion-ney departa. — The weather is bad, the plane’s departure has to be delayed.

Si me bu findi kitaba, me majbur kupi nove-la. — If I don’t find the book, I’ll have to buy a new one.

majburi — (zwo) compel, constrain, force, oblige

majburi-ney (majburen) — (kwel) forced, compulsory

majburi-nem (majburem) — (komo) forcedly, perforce, willy-nilly




major — (kwo) major (mus.)

Ant.: minor




mak — (kwo) poppy




makala — (kwo) article (a story, report in a newspaper, journal, etc.)




makaron — (kwo) pasta, macaroni




maketa — (kwo) layout drawing, layout, (printing) dummy, maquette, mockup, model

maketi — (zwo) lay out, breadboard




makiaja — (kwo) make-up (cosmetics applied especially to the face)




makni — (zwo) dip, dunk




mala — (kwo) beads

malinka — (kwo) bead




malgree — (konekti) in spite of, despite




malina — (kwo) raspberry




mama — (kwo) mammy, mom, mommy




mamila — (kwo) breast (of woman); udder (of animal)

mamili — (zwo) suckle

mamili-animal, mamiler — (kwo) mammal

mamila-kinda — (kwo) infant, nurseling




man — (kwo) man, male human (also manjen)

manjen klaida — men’s clothes

manlik — (kwel) manly

manliktaa — (kwo) manliness

ko-man — (kwo) male companion; husband (also “mursha”)




man- — (syao) "male"

man-leker — male physician

man-dogа — male dog




mandarina — (kwo) tangerine, mandarin




mandat — (kwo) mandate, warrant, credentials




mandir — (kwo) temple (building for worship)




manera — (kwo) manner




mangi — (zwo) be busy (with)

me mangi, foni poy — I am busy, call later

me mangi reporta — I am busy with the report

me mangi lekti un kitaba — I am busy with reading a book

manga — (kwo) being busy, pressure of work

manga-ney (mange) — (kwel) busy, occupied




mango — (kwo) mango




mangusta — (kwo) mongoose




mani — (kwo) money

pi-mani — (kwo) tip, gratuity

handa-mani — (kwo) ready cash, money in hand

manidan — (kwo) purse




mania — (kwo) mania

mania de persekwa — mania of persecution




manifesti — (zwo) manifest, make to appear, show plainly

manifesta — (kwo) manifestation




manifestu — (kwo) manifesto




manikur — (kwo) manicure




manili — (zwo) entice, allure, beckon, decoy, inveigle

manilika — (kwo) bait, lure




manipulati — (zwo) manipulate

manipulata — (kwo) manipulation




manovra — (kwo) manoeuvre, maneuver

manovri — (zwo) manoeuvre




mansha — (kwo) sleeve

fai manshas uupar — roll up one's sleeves




manta — (kwo) blanket




mantela — (kwo) mantle, cloak




manteni — (zwo) maintain (keep up, keep in the same state, sustain (in a state of stability))

manteni familia — maintain a family

manteni-gunsa — maintenance work

mantena — (zwo) maintenance, upkeep




manuskripta — (kwo) manuscript




manya — (taim-komo) tomorrow

aftemanya — (kwo) the day after tomorrow




mao — (kwo) hair coat; wool; fleece

mao(-ney) — (kwel) woolen; hairy

longmao-ney — (kwel) shaggy

maoshapa — (kwo) woolen cap




maori — (kwel, kwo) Maori (relating to ethnicity or language)




mapa — (kwo) map




mar — (kwo) sea

mar(-ney) — (kwel) marine

marjen — (kwo) seaman, sailor

mar-bata — (kwo) surf




margen — (kwo) margin (of book, of paper); (fig.) border, edge (of anything)

nota pa margen — notes in the margins




marinada — (kwo) marinade

marinadi — (zwo) marinade

marinaden gurka — pickled cucumber




marka — (kwo) mark (sign, token; label; trace)

marki — (zwo) mark, denote

marking — (kwo) marking




markitan — (kwo) sutler




marmar — (kwo) marble




marmelada — (kwo) marmalade




Marsa — (kwo) Mars




marshal — (kwo) marshal




marshi — (zwo) march (to walk steadily; to participate in an organized walk)

marsha — (kwo) march (also music)




martanga — (kwo) strait, channel

(Origin: mar+tanga)




marto — (kwo) March (also mes-tri)




masa — (kwo) mass (quantity of matter; a body of matter with no specific shape; the body of common people — cf. “mesa”)

masa-media — (kwo) mass medium, mass media

See also: menga




masala — (kwo) spice; seasoning

masali — (zwo) spice, season

masala-ney (masale) — (kwel) spicy, savoury, piquant




masbute — (kwel) firm; sound, robust, sturdy, solid

masbutifi (fa-masbute) — (zwo) grow strong, firm

masbutisi (mah-masbute) — (zwo) make stronger, reinforce

masbutitaa — (kwo) durability, strength; soundness, solidity




mashina — (kwo) machine




masive — (kwel) massive




masjid — (kwo) mosque




maska — (kwo) mask

maski — (zwo) mask

demaski — (zwo) unmask, unveil




maskul — (kwo) male

maskul-ney — (kwel) male

maskulum — (kwo) gram. masculine gender




Masra — (kwo) Egypt




masri — Egyptian (of, from, or pertaining to Egypt, the Egyptian people or the Egyptian dialect of Arabic); Egyptian (a person from Egypt or of Egyptian descent)




masta — (kwo) master (owner, boss)

gin-masta — (kwo) mistress

dom-masta — (kwo) master/mistress of the house




master — (kwo) master (expert; skilled artist)




mastula — (kwo) mast (nautical)




masu — (kwo) meat

govamasu — (kwo) beef

swinamasu — (kwo) pork

yanmasu — (kwo) mutton

masumeler — (kwo) mincing machine, meat grinder

masuyuan — (kwo) butcher




mat — (kwo) checkmate, mate




mata — (kwo) mother

mata-patra — (kwo) parents

See also: mama




matematika — (kwo) mathematics

matematike — (kwel) mathematical

matematiker — (kwo) mathematician




materia — (kwo) matter, substance

materiale — (kwel) material (relating to matter; bodily, physical)

materiale munda — material world




material — (kwo) stuff, material

bildi-material — building materials

hao material fo filma — good material for a film




matove — (kwel) matte (not reflecting light, not glossy, dull)

Ant.: glan-she




matras — (kwo) mattress

pruja-matras — spring mattress




mature — (kwel) ripe, mature

mature yabla — ripe apple

maturifi (fa-mature) — (zwo) ripen

maturitaa — (kwo) ripeness, maturity

premature — (kwel) premature




maus — (kwo) mouse

mauskapter — (kwo) mouse trap

yunmaus — (kwo) baby mouse




mavi — (zwo) wave (one’s hand); wag

mava — (kwo) wave (of hand)




maxima — (kwo) maxim




maximale — (kwel) maximal, maximum, highest possible

maximalem — (komo) maximally




maximum — (kwo) maximum




may — (inplas-kwel) my, mine




mayor — (kwo) major (military rank)




mazuta — (kwo) mazut




me — (inplas-kwo) I, me

a me — to me

Me shwo a yu. — I speak to you.

Audi ba me! — Listen to me!

Jawabi koysa a me! — Answer me something!

me-ney, may — (inplas-kwel) my, mine

Walaa may kalam. — Here is my pen.

Sey kalam es me-ney, bu yu-ney. — This pen is mine, not yours.




mebel — (kwo) furniture (movable articles that equip a room, house, etc.)

mebelka — (kwo) a piece of furniture

mebeli — (zwo) furnish, provide with furniture




medalia — (kwo) medal




media — (kwo) means, medium

bay media de — by means of, through the medium of

lekimedia — (kwo) medicinal agent, remedy

masa-media — (kwo) mass medium, mass media




medike — (kwel) medical

medika — (kwo) medic, medical man, medical worker




medisina — (kwo) medicine (science, practice — cf. “farmak”)




mediti — (zwo) meditate, think over, ponder

medita — (kwo) meditation




meil — (kwo) mail, post

meilguan — (kwo) post office




meja — (kwo) measure (also "step, action")

meji — (zwo) measure

mejibile — (kwel) measurable




mekanika — (kwo) mechanics

mekanike — (kwel) mechanical

mekaniker — (kwo) mechanic




mekanisma — (kwo) mechanism




melankolia — (kwo) melancholy

melankolike — (kwel) melancholic, melancholy




meli — (zwo) grind, mill

meli wit inu farina — grind wheat into flour

melidom — (kwo) mill

meliyuan — (kwo) miller

kahwameler — (kwo) coffee grinder/mill




melodia — (kwo) melody




melon — (kwo) melon




memba — (kwo) member (a part of a human or animal body; a part of a plant — cf. "yuan")




memoria — (kwo) memory

pa memoria — from memory

memorisi — (zwo) memorize




menga — 1) (kwo) a lot, multitude, large body (of smth)

menga de kwesta — a lot of questions

menga-ney — (kwo) numerous

2) (syao) «a lot, gathering of»

moskamenga — (kwo) swarm of flies

jenmenga — (kwo) crowd

mengi — (zwo) be in multitude, crowd, throng, swarm, mob




meno — (gramatika) less, fewer

meno kem shi — less than ten

Lu lopi meno kway kem yu. — He runs less quick than you.

Sey gaseta es meno interes-ney kem toy-la. — This newspaper is less interesting than that one.

Nu nadi ke in futur ye meno gwer in munda. — We hope that in future there will be fewer wars in the world.




mensioni — (zwo) mention, make mention of

mensiona — (kwo) mention, mentioning




menta — (kwo) mind, mentality

mentale — (kwel) mental

mentastasa — (kwo) state of mind




menu — (kwo) menu




mer — (kwo) mayor




merita — (kwo) merit, desert

meriti — (zwo) merit, deserve

Ant.: nomerita, dosh




merki — (zwo) notice, note, take notice of, mark

merki pa un-ney kansa — notice at the first sight

merki to ke ta shwo — mark what he says

merkival — (kwel) notable, noteworthy, remarkable

merkibile — (kwel) noticeable

bumerki-ney — (kwel) unnoticed

sinmerkem — (komo) insensibly




Merkuri — (kwo) Mercury




mes — (kwo) month

mes-ney, kadames-ney — (kwel) monthly




mesa — (kwo) (Church) Mass




mesaja — (kwo) message




met — (kwo) mat (flat piece of material); doormat

mausmet — (kwo) mouse mat/pad




metal — (kwo) metal

metal(-ney) — (kwel) metallic

metalka — (kwo) a metallic thing, piece of metal




meteo — (kwo) weather

badal-ney meteo — cloudy weather




metoda — (kwo) method (special or definite system of procedure)

metodike — (kwo) methodical




metra — (kwo) meter

pet metra — five meters




metro — (kwo) subway, the underground




mey — (kwo) May (also mes-pet)




middeyfan — (kwo) lunch




mide — (kwel) middle, mean; average

midem — (komo) on average

midika — (kwo) average

mida — (kwo) middle, mean

yus in mida de — right in the middle of

mid- — (syao) "mid-"

midnocha — midnight

middey — midday, noon

midyash-ney — middle-aged




miden — (konekti) amid, in the middle (of), in the midst (of), among

miden shamba — in the middle of the room

miden amigas — among friends

miden nocha — in the middle of the night

Miden li ye diverse jen. — There are various people among them.




mif — (kwo) myth

mifike — (kwel) mythic(al)




mifen — (kwo) bee

mifendom — (kwo) hive




mifologia — (kwo) mythology

mifologike — (kwel) mythological

mifologisi — (zwo) mythologize




migi — (zwo) blink; wink

miga — (kwo) blink; wink

in miga-taim — in the blink of an eye




migri — (zwo) migrate

migri-faulas — migrating birds

migra — (kwo) migration




mikas — (kwo) scissors; shears




mikroskop — (kwo) microscope




mil — (kwanto) thousand (1000)

mil yar — one thousand years

tri mil sitsto-shi-sem — 3617

un milfen — one-thousandth




miliarda — (kwanto) billion, 1000 millions, 109

miliarder — (kwo) billionaire




milion — (kwanto) million, 106

dwa milion — two millions

dwa milion petsto mil — 2 500 000

milioner — (kwo) millionaire




milka — (kwo) milk

dai milka — give milk

milka(-ney) — (kwel) milk, milky; dairy

Milkadao — Milky Way

milki — (zwo) milk

milking — (kwo) milking

milker — (kwo) milker (person or machine)

milki-sha — (kwo) milker (person)




milyoo — (kwo) milieu

sirkum-milyoo — (kwo) (natural) environment




mina — (kwo) mine (explosive device — cf. “kwanshilok”)

stavi mina — lay/plant mines

minisi — (zwo) mine (lay mines)




mindal — (kwo) almond




mineral — (kwo) mineral

mineral-ney — (kwel) mineral

mineral-ney akwa — mineral water

mineralisi — (zwo) mineralize




minim — (gramatika) least

minim kway — least quick(ly)

minimgrad — (komo) least of all

minimtaa — (kwo) minority




minimale — (kwel) minimal, minimum

minimalem — (komo) minimally




minimum — (kwo) minimum




minista — (kwo) minister (high officer of state)




minor — (kwo) minor (mus.)

Ant.: major




minta — (kwo) mint (plant or flavouring)

minta-bonbon — mint (candy)




minuta — (kwo) minute




mira — (kwo) mirror, looking glass




mirakla — (kwo) miracle

mirakla-ney (mirakle), miraklalik — (kwel) miraculous




mirta — (kwo) myrtle




mis — 1) (kwo) miss (a title of respect for a young unmarried woman; an unmarried woman)

See also: sinior, madam

2) (syao) mis- (in a wrong way)

misyusi — misuse

miskalkuli — miscalculate

misstepi — stumble

misaudi — mishear

misluma — uncertain light




mision — (kwo) mission

misioner — (kwo) missionary




miska — (kwo) musk

miska-rata — muskrat




misteria — (kwo) mystery

misteriaful — (kwel) mysterious




miti — (zwo) meet; encounter

me joi al miti yu — I am glad to meet you

mita — (kwo) meeting; encounter

go pa mita — approach in the opposite direction, come to meet




mixi — (zwo) mix; blend, mingle

mixing — (kwo) mixing

mixa — (kwo) mix

mixitura — (kwo) mixture

mixer — (kwo) mixer

muvi-miksi — (zwo) stir up

bati-mixi — (zwo) churn




mlan — (kwel) sluggish, lackadaisical, listless, languid, slack, inert, nerveless




mobile — (kwel) mobile

mobila — (kwo) mobile phone




moda — (kwo) fashion, vogue, mode

moda-ney — (kwel) fashionable




model — (kwo) model

modeli — (zwo) model (cf. “lepi”)




moden — (kwel) modern

modenisi — (zwo) modernize




modere — (kwel) moderate, temperate

moderitaa — (kwo) moderateness, moderation, temperance

moderisi — (zwo) moderate, keep within bonds; mitigate




modifiki — (zwo) modify, make partial changes in

modifika — (kwo) modification




modus — (kwo) mode (way, manner, or status); (gram.) mood




mog — (sta) can, may

me bu mog zwo to — I can't do it

se mog bi — it may be

kadawan mog lai — everyone may come

Yu mog zwo se kom yu yao. — You may do it as you like.

mogbi — (komo) maybe

mogisi — (zwo) enable

mogsa — (kwo) might, power

pa ol mogsa — with all might

me zwo olo ke es inen may mogsa — I'll do everything within my power

bu mog — one can't, it is impossible

Bu mog jivi sin chi. — One can't live without eating.

bu-mog-bi-ke — incredible, impossible




moha — (kwo) moss (plants)




moher — (kwo) mohair




moki — (zwo) mock, deride, ridicule

moka — (kwo) mock, derision, sneer, ridicule




mokre — (kwel) wet

mokrifi (fa-mokre) — (zwo) get wet/drenched

mokrisi (mah-mokre) — (zwo) wet (cover or impregnate with liquid)




mole — (kwel) soft

mole kushen — soft cushion

molenesa — (kwo) softness

moli — (zwo) soften (tr./intr.)

molifi (fa-mole) — (zwo) soften, become soft

molisi (mah-mole) — (zwo) soften, make soft or softer

molika — (kwo) pulp (soft mass or matter)




molekula — (kwo) molecule




molya — (kwo) wife




momenta — (kwo) moment, instant

momenta-ney (momente) — (kwel) momentary

momenta-nem (momentem) — (komo) instantly, in a moment




momentum — (kwo) momentum




monah — (kwo) monk, nun

monaho — (kwo) monk

monahina — (kwo) nun




monarka — (kwo) monarch

monarkia — (kwo) monarchy




monastir — (kwo) cloister, monastery, nunnery, convent




moneta — (kwo) coin




monitor — (kwo) monitor (device or program)

monitori — (zwo) monitor

monitoring — (kwo) monitoring




monologa — (kwo) monologue, soliloquy




monopolia — (kwo) monopoly

monopolisi — (zwo) monopolize




monson — (kwo) monsoon




monsta — (kwo) monster

monstalik, monsta-ney — (kwel) monstrous




monta — (kwo) mountain

monta-ney — (kwel) mountain, mountainous

montaflanka — (kwo) mountain flank

montalok — (kwo) mountains, mountainous place

monta-kadena — (kwo) mountain-ridge, range, chain of mountains




monta-gap — (kwo) gorge, ravine, canyon




montiri — (zwo) mount, set up; montage

montira — (kwo) mounting, installation; montage; editing




monton — (kwo) heap, pile

monton de ramla — heap of sand

montoni — (zwo) heap, pile




moral — (kwo) morals, morality

moral-ney — (kwel) moral




morba — (kwo) sickness, illness; disease

morba-ney (morbe) — (kwel) sick, ill

morbi — (zwo) to be sick/ill

en-morbi — (zwo) fall sick/ill




morta — (kwo) death

morta-ney (morte) — (kwel) dead

om mortes treba shwo sol hao — of the dead speak only good

morti — (zwo) die

mortijen — (kwo) deadman

mortifa — (kwo) mortification

mortalok — (kwo) the next/other world

mortika — (kwo) carrion




morta-puni — (zwo) execute, put to death

morta-puna — (kwo) execution




moska — (kwo) fly (insect)

moskamenga — (kwo) swarm of flies




moskita — (kwo) mosquito




moti — (zwo) reel, wind, coil

moti koysa sirkum koysa — wind smth round smth

motimashina — (kwo) reeling machine, winder

motika — (kwo) hank, coil, skein

demoti — (zwo) unwind, uncoil




motiv — (kwo) motive; motif

motivi — (zwo) motivate

motiva — (kwo) motivation




motor — (kwo) motor, engine




motosikla — (kwo) motorcycle




mu — (kwo) moo

fai mu — moo, low




muaki — (zwo) feel sick (at the stomach), have nausea

muaka — (kwo) nausea




muar — (kwo) moire, watered silk




muazin — (kwo) muezzin




mucho — (inplas-kwanto) much, many, a lot

gun mucho — work much

mucho jen — many people

mucho mani — a lot of money

mucho pyu hao — much better

muchos — many (people)

muchoyar-ney — (kwel) of many years




muda — (kwo) mood, spirits




muh — (kwo) mouth

muh de riva — estuary

muh-ney — (kwel) oral

muh-ney lingwa — oral language

muhka — (kwo) mouthpiece




muhim — (kwel) important

muhimtaa — (kwo) importance, significance

dai muhimtaa a koysa — attach importance to smth

nomuhim — (kwel) unimportant, trifling, trivial

nomuhimka — (kwo) trifle, nothingness

muhimi — (zwo) be of importance




mukati — (zwo) blow one’s nose




mukus — (kwo) mucus, mucilage; slime

nosmukus — (kwo) snivel, snot




mule — (kwel) mild, gentle

mulitaa — (kwo) mildness, gentleness




multipliki — (zwo) multiply (bay, pa — by)

tri multipliki pa char es shi-dwa (tri ves char es shi-dwa) — 3 multiplied by 4 makes 12

multiplika — (kwo) multiplication




mumia — (kwo) mummy (embalmed corpse)

mumisi — (zwo) mummify (tr.)

mumifi — (zwo) mummify (intr.)




munda — (kwo) world

munda(-ney) — (kwel) world; global




mur — (kwo) wall




murmuri — (zwo) murmur (cf. “hamsi”)

murmura — (kwo) murmur




mursha — (kwo) husband




mus — (sta) must

Oli jen mus chi fo jivi. — All people must eat in order to live.

Manya me mus go a ofis. — Tomorrow I must go to the office.

Yu mus bu chi. = You must not eat.

bu mus — (sta) to not have to

Yu bu mus chi. — You do not have to eat.

nomus — (sta) must not (obligatory prohibition)

Yu nomus chi. — You must not eat.

See also: treba, gai




musafer — (kwo) passenger

musafer-avion — passenger aircraft




mushkile — (kwel) difficult

sta gro-mushkile — feel miserable / wretched / unhappy

mushkilem — (komo) with difficulty

mushkilitaa — (kwo) difficulty (the state of being difficult)

mushkila — (kwo) difficulty (obstacle)

sin mushkila — without difficulty, easily, with no trouble

mah-mushkile — (zwo) make difficult




musika — (kwo) music

musiki, fai musika — play/make music

musikale — (kwel) musical

musiker — (kwo) musician




muskula — (kwo) muscle

mah-laxe muskula — relax muscles

tensi muskula — strain muscles

muskulatot — (kwo) muscular system

muskulaful — (kwel) brawny, muscular




musla — (kwo) muzzle, snout

musladan — (kwo) muzzle (device used to prevent animal from biting or eating)




muslina — (kwo) muslin




musta — (kwo) pattern (that from which a copy is made), specimen, sample




mustash — (kwo) moustache; whisker (animal’s)




mute — (kwel) dumb, mute




mutili — (zwo) maim, mutilate, cripple

mutila — (kwo) mutilation, deformity

mutilawan — (kwo) cripple




mutu — (komo) one another, each other

nu lubi mutu — we love each other

a mutu — to each other




mutuale — (kwel) mutual




muvi — (zwo) move

muva — (kwo) move, motion, movement

sinmuva-ney — motionless




muy — (modus-komo) very

muy jamile — very beautiful

muy kway — very quickly




myao — (zwo) mew, meow, miaow




myati — (zwo) crumple, crush, rumple




myen — (kwo) mien




na — (gramatika) (optionally marks an end of a semantic group)

See also: ti




nabla — (kwo) navel, umbilicus




nadi — (zwo) hope

nada — (kwo) hope

sinnada-ney (sinnade) — (kwo) hopeless

sinnaditaa — (kwo) hopelessness




nafra — (kwo) aversion, disgust, abomination

nafra-ney (nafre) — (kwel) abominable, repulsive, detestable

nafri — (zwo) abominate




nafta — (kwo) (mineral) oil, petroleum




naga — (kwo) nail (of metal — cf. “naka”)

nagi — (zwo) nail

fa-nagi — (zwo) stick, pierce




nagle — (kwel) impudent, insolent, impertinent

naglitaa — (kwo) impudence, insolence

nagla (naglo, naglina) — (kwo) impudent/insolent fellow




naive — (kwel) naive

naiva, naivnik — (kwo) naive person




naka — (kwo) nail; claw




nakali — (zwo) incandesce

nakali-ney — (kwel) incandesced




nal — (kwo) horseshoe




naloga — (kwo) tax (money paid to the government)




nam — (kwo) name

nami — (zwo) name; be named, be called

Komo yu nami? — What is your name?

Me nami Jon. — My name is John.

nami-yen — (komo) namely

samnam-ney — (kwel) of the same name

samnamjen — (kwo) namesake




namastee — (exklami) hello; good-bye




namba — (kwo) number (cf. "numer")

gran namba — big number

pare namba — even number

namba expresa — numerical expression




namre — (kwel) modest

namrem — (komo) modestly

namritaa — (kwo) modesty




nana — (kwo) nurse

hospital nana — hospital nurse




nangwa — (kwo) pumpkin




narko — (kwo) narcotic, addictive drug




nasha — (kwo) intoxication (any kind of)

nashisi — (zwo) stupefy, befuddle, besot, intoxicate

nashi-she — (kwel) befuddling, intoxicating




nasion — (kwo) nation

nasion-ney — (kwel) national




natryum — (kwo) sodium, natrium




natura — (kwo) nature

abyas es dwa-ney natura — habit is second nature

naturale — (kwel) natural

naturalem — (komo) naturally

naturalitaa — (kwo) naturalness




nau — (taim-komo) now

til nau — till now; depos nau — from now on

al nau — (komo) at the moment, presently; nowadays

lo nau — (kwo) the present (time)

nau...nau — (konekti) now...now

Nau ta silensi, nau shwo mucho. — Now he keeps silent, now he speaks much.

nau-ney — (kwel) present, actual, today's, current




navigi — (zwo) navigate, sail

naviga — (kwo) navigation




nayu — (kwo) butter

nayudan — (kwo) butterdish




nefra — (kwo) kidney




negative — (kwel) negative

negativa — (kwo) negative




negi — (zwo) deny, negate

nega — (kwo) negation

Ant.: aserti, konfirmi




neglekti — (zwo) neglect, treat carelessly, slight, be remiss

neglekta — (kwo) negligence

Ant.: kuydi




negra — (kwo) a Black person, negro

negro — (kwo) a Black male

negrina — (kwo) Negress




neme — (kwel) numb, insensible

nemifi — (zwo) grow numb

nemitaa — (kwel) numbness




neon — (kwo) neon

neon-jaopay — neon sign




Neptun — (kwo) Neptune

Neptun-ney — (kwel) Neptunian




nerva — (kwo) nerve

nerva(-ney) — (kwel) nerve, nervous

nerva-sistema — nerve system

nerva-morba — nervous disease




nesese — (kwel) necessary (also "of an inevitable nature")

nesesitaa — (kwo) necessity




nesta — (kwo) nest

nesti — (zwo) nest, build its nest; nestle




neta — (kwo) net

texi neta — weave a net




neutrale — (kwel) neutral




neva — (taim-komo) never

See also: nulves




ney — (gramatika) modifier-making particle

Tina-ney vos — Tina's voice

brata-ney nam — brother's name

jen-ney — human

chi-ney fan — eaten food

rude-fas-ney man — red-faced man

olo es yo zwo-ney — everything is already done

un-ney — first

dwa-ney — second

nem

un-nem — firstly, at first

Un-nem me go a skola, poy a dom. — First I go to school, then home.

dwa-nem — secondly




ni — (gramatika)

ni...ni... — neither... nor

ni me ni yu — neither me nor you

Ant.: i




nich — (konekti-komo) down(wards)

go nich — to go down

nich kolina — down the hill

nich fluisa — downstream

nichen — (konekti-komo) down (at what place?), at the lower part of

Lai nich. Me es nichen. — Come down. I am down.

nichen bey — at the lower part of back

nichen kolina — at the bottom of the hill.

fon nichen — from below

nichisi — (zwo) lower, bring down; turn down

nichisi kapa — hang one’s head

nichisi kansa — lower one's gaze

nichifi, fa-nich — (zwo) sink, drop, move down




niche — (kwel) lower, situated below

zuy niche lif — lowest leaves

nicha — (kwo) lower part, bottom

nicha-uupar — upside down, bottom up

fon nicha til uupara — from top to bottom

nichlok — (kwo) lowland, depression




nidi — (zwo) need, have need of (cf. “treba”)

me nidi reposi — I need a rest

lu nidi yur helpa — he needs your help

buniden — (kwel) unnecessary, needless

nida — (kwo) need




nihil — (kwo) non-being, nil, nothing

nihilisi — (zwo) destroy, eliminate, annihilate

nihilisa — (kwo) destruction, annihilation




nihon — (kwel, kwo) Japanese

See also: Nipon




nikab — (kwo) niqab




niki — (zwo) nod

nika — (kwo) nod




Nil — (kwo) Nile

Nil-ney krokodil — Nile crocodile




nin — (kwanto) nine (9)

ninshi — 90

ninsto — 900




Nipon — (kwo) Japan

Nipon-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Japan

See also: nihon




nise — (kwel) low (of small hight or placed below normal height — cf. "niche")

nisisi (mah-nise) — (zwo) lower, reduce hight (tr.)




nisha — (kwo) niche




nishan — (kwo) target (butt or mark to shoot at; goal or objective)




nitrogen — (kwo) nitrogen




nivel — (kwo) level

niveli — (zwo) level, level out




nixa — (inplas-kwo) nothing

Me jan ke me bu jan nixa. — I know that I know nothing.

Danke! – Es nixa. — Thank you! – That's nothing.




no — (syao) makes antonyms

kalme calm — nokalme uneasy

pinchan ordinary — nopinchan extraordinary

pa nofortuna — unfortunately




noble — (kwel) noble




nobyen — (kwel) inconvenient; inopportune, inappropriate

Ant.: byen




nocha — (kwo) night

pa nocha — at/by night

hao nocha! — good night!

fa-nocha — night is coming

nochi, tranochi — (zwo) pass the night, spend the night




nochaparpar — (kwo) moth

(Origin: nocha+parpar)




noda — (kwo) knot

nodaful — (kwel) knotty, snaggy, gnarled

nodi — (zwo) knot

nodi tay — to tie one's tie




nok — (kwo) point, tip

bay finga nok — by finger tips

igla nok — needle point

buta nok — boot tip




nokalme — (kwel) unquiet, uneasy, restless, troubled

sta nokalme — be anxious/uneasy

nokalmitaa — (kwo) anxiety, unrest, uneasiness

nokalmi — (zwo) worry

nokalmisi (mah-nokalme) — (zwo) disquiet, worry, make anxious/uneasy




nol — (kwanto) zero (0)

shi gradus sub nol — ten degrees below zero




non — (exklami) no

Ob yu pri sey kitaba? — Non.— Do you like this book? — No.




nopare — (kwel) odd, uneven

Ant.: pare




nopinchan — (kwel) extraordinary, unusual, uncommon, singular

Ant.: pinchan




nopri — (zwo) dislike

nopria — (kwo) dislike




norda — (kwo) north

norda(-ney) — (kwel) north(ern), northerly

norde feng — north wind

norden — (konekti-komo) to the north, north of

urba es norden — the town is to the north

norden urba ye shulin — forest is north of the town




normale — (kwel) normal

normalem — (komo) normally

normalisi — (zwo) normalize

normalisa — (kwo) normalization




nos — (kwo) nose

nosdun — (kwo) nostril

nosmukus — (kwo) nasal mucus, snivel




nosantisi — (zwo) desecrate, profane, defile

(Origin: no+sante+isi)




nosion — (kwo) notion (concept; mental image or representation)




nota — (kwo) note (a brief piece of writing; a diplomatic missive; a musical sound/mark)

bankanota — (kwo) bank note

noti — (zwo) note (record — cf. “merki”)




notifiki — (zwo) notify (formally)

notifika — (kwo) notification, notice




nove — (kwel) new

novika — (kwo) smth new (e.g. product)

novitaa — (kwo) newness, novelty

novnik — (kwo) novice

novifi (fa-nove) — (zwo) be/get renewed

novisi (mah-nove) — (zwo) renew; update

novisa — (kwo) renewal; update




novela — (kwo) novel (short story — cf. “roman”)




novemba — (kwo) November (also mes-shi-un)

pa novemba — in November




nu — (inplas-kwo) we, us

nu-ney, nuy — (inplas-kwel) our

Walaa nuy dom. — Here's our house.

Sey dom es nu-ney, bu li-ney. — This house is ours, not theirs.




nuansa — (kwo) nuance




nude — (kwel) nude, naked, bare

nudpeda-ney (nudpede) — barefooted

nuditaa — (kwo) nudity, bareness, nakedness

nudifi — (zwo) become naked

nudisi — (zwo) bare, strip

nudisi swa, mah swa nude — bare/strip oneself

nudisma — (kwo) nudism

nudina — (kwo) a naked woman




nudla — (kwo) noodles




nuka — (kwo) back of the head, nape, occiput

nuka-darba — cuff on the nape




nuklea — (kwo) nucleus

sela-nuklea — nucleus of cell

atom-nuklea — atomic nucleus

nukleare — (kwel) nuclear




nuksan — (kwo) harm; mischief

nuksani — (zwo) harm

nuksan-ney — (kwel) harmful




nul — (inplas-kwel) no (whatever), none (whatever)

Nul kinda pri go somni. — No child likes to go sleep.

nulem — (inplas-komo) in no way

nulgrad — (inplas-komo) not in the least

nullok — (inplas-komo) nowhere

Me zai shuki may kalam. Me bu mog findi it nullok. — I am looking for my pencil. I can't find it anywhere.

a nullok — to nowhere

nulves — (taim-komo) not once, never

nulwan — (konekti-kwo) nobody

Nulwan jan. — Nobody knows.

Me bu koni nulwan hir. — I don't know anybody here.

nulnik — (kwo) a nobody, nonentity




numer — (kwo) number (No.)

kaval numer char jiti — horse number four wins

tri-ney numer de nuy programa — the third number of our program

numeri — (zwo) number

numera — (kwo) numeration




nungu — (kwo) porcupine




nuta — (kwo) nut (hard-shelled seed)

kreki nuta — crack nuts




nutri — (zwo) nourish, feed

nutra — (kwo) nourishing, nutrition

nutritive — (kwel) nutritive, nutritious

el-nutra — (kwo) power supply




nutria — (kwo) nutria, coypu




Nyusiland — (kwo) New Zealand




o (oda) — (unisi) or

Kwo yu pri pyu, rasmi o gani? — What do you like more, to draw or to sing?

oda...oda... — either...or

Me bu mog dai a yu ambi kamel. Pren un. Oda sey-la, oda toy-la. — I cannot give you both camels. Take one. Either this one or that one.




ob — (gramatika) 1) interrogative particle

Ob me mog ofni winda? — May I open the window?

2) whether

Me kwesti, ob me mog ofni winda. — I ask whether I may open the window.




obedi — (zwo) obey, comply with

obeda — (kwo) obedience

desobedi — (zwo) disobey

desobeda — (kwo) disobedience




obese — (kwel) obese

obesitaa — (kwo) obesity




objeti — (zwo) object, adduce as an objection

objeta — (kwo) objection




obligi — (zwo) oblige (put under obligation to do or not to do smth), bind, constrain (by duty, honour, etc.)

obliga — (kwo) obligation

obliga-ney (oblige) — (kwel) obligatory




oblikue — (kwel) oblique




observi — (zwo) observe (carefully view; follow)

observa — (kwo) observation




obsesi — (zwo) obsess

obsesen bay foba — obsessed with fear

obsesa — (kwo) obsession




obskure — (kwel) obscure (without sufficient light, dim, somber; not easily understood)

obskurisi — (zwo) obscure, dim, darken

obskurifi — (zwo) become obscure

Syn.: tume

Ant.: klare




obstakla — (kwo) obstacle

obstakli, fai obstakla — (zwo) impede, hamper, put obstacles in the way




obwol — (unisi) though, although, albeit

Me shwo a yu, obwol yu bu yao audi me. — I speak to you, although you don't want to hear me.




obyekta — (kwo) object (thing, item)




ochak — (kwo) hearth, fireplace; (fig.) hotbed, seat, breeding ground, focus, center

ochak de gwer — seat of war

ochak de resista — centre of resistance




of — (komo) off (about a mechanism or connection)

Radio es of. — The radio is off.

Plis mah-of radio. — Please put off the radio.




ofensi — (zwo) offend, give offence to

ofensa — (kwo) offence

fa-ofensi — (zwo) be offended

fa-ofensishil — (kwel) touchy, susceptible, quick to take offence

ofensa-ney (ofense), ofensive — (kwel) offensive

no-ofensive — (kwel) inoffensive

ofensi-ney (ofensen) — (kwel) offended, resentful, hurt

ofensi-nem (ofensem) — (komo) offendedly, resentfully

ofenser — (kwo) offender




ofis — (kwo) office (place), bureau




ofisiale — (kwel) official (authorized; authoritative)

ofisiala — (kwo) official, officer, functionary, bureaucrat




oflain — (kwel) offline

Ant.: onlain




ofni — (zwo) open

ofna — (kwo) opening

ofna-ney (ofne) — (kwel) open

idyen (kelkem) ofni-ney — ajar

ofner, ofnika — (kwo) opener

ofnitura — (kwo) aperture, orifice

ofnelok — (kwo) open place, opening, glade




ofri — (zwo) offer, proffer, tender

fa-ofri — present itself (about an opportunity)

ofra — (kwo) offer




ofser — (kwo) officer (military, police, nautical)

subofser — (kwo) non-commissioned officer




ofte — (kwel) frequent

oftem — (komo) often




ohoo — (exklami) oho




oista — (kwo) oyster




oko — (kwo) eye

ofni/klosi okos — open/close one’s eyes

klosi-presi okos — close one's eyes tight

fai gro-okos — to goggle

kan koysa bay gro-okos — to gape at smth

okovati — (zwo) eye

oko-yama — (kwo) eye socket




okra — (kwo) ochre




oktoba — (kwo) October (also mes-shi)




okula — (kwo) glasses, spectacles, goggles




okupi — (zwo) occupy (a place, time, mind)

se okupi oli may duma — this occupies all my thoughts

se okupi mucho taim — it takes much time

okupi-ney (okupen) — (kwel) occupied

toy tabla es okupen — that table is occupied

See also: mangi, zun




ol — (inplas-kwel) all, the whole of, throughout the whole of

ol dey — all day long

oli — (inplas-kwo, kwel) all, everyone, everybody

oli jan — everybody knows

oli may amiga — all my friends

oli dey — all the days

oli hi — all to a man, every single one

Nu oli es hir. — We are all here.

olo — (inplas-kwo) all, everything

me jan olo — I know everything




olea — (kwo) oil (liquid fat)

olei — (zwo) oil




oliva — (kwo) olive

olivabaum — (kwo) olive tree




olosam — (komo) all the same; anyway

Kwo unkwe yu shwo, me ve zwo se olosam. — Whatever you say, I'll do it anyway.

Tu go adar, tu bu go adar, es olosam. — To go there or not, it's all the same.

Syn.: enikas, malgree olo; es egale, bu muhim




oltaim — (komo) all the time, constantly

oltaim pyu hao — better and better

oltaim pyu — more and more

oltaim pyu mushkile — increasingly difficult




om — (konekti) about, concerning; on (refers to the subject of activity)

om se — about this

om to — about that

om olo — about everything

Nu zai gun om sey problema. — We are working on this problem.




oma — (kwo) grandmother

See also: opa




omlet — (kwo) omelette




on —1) (konekti) on (on the surface)

on tabla — on the table

2) (komo) on (about a mechanism or connection)

Radio es on. — The radio is on.

mah-on TV — turn on the TV




onda — (kwo) wave

ondi — (zwo) wave, undulate

onding — (kwo) undulation




oni — (inplas-kwo) one, they (indefinite personal pronoun)

oni shwo ke... — they say that...

Lai pyu blisem! Hir oni bu mog audi nul worda. — Come closer! Here one can’t hear a word.




onishwoka — (kwo) rumour, hearsay

Origin: oni+shwo+ka




onkla — (kwo) uncle

See also: tia




onlain — (kwel) online (connected to a computer; accessible via computer network)

Ant.: oflain




onpon — (kwo) put on (clothes, glasses)

lu onpon-te shapa — he put his hat on

Origin: on+pon




oo — (exklami) 1) oh

Oo es ya jamile! — Oh, it’s so beautiful!

Oo ya! — Oh yes!

2) o (vocative particle)

Hao fortuna a yu, oo shefa de wulfas! — Good luck go with you, O Chief of the Wolves!




opa — (kwo) grandfather

praopa — (kwo) great-grandfather

See also: oma




operati — (zwo) operate

operata — (kwo) operation (also “operasion”)

operater — (kwo) operator




opini — (zwo) opine, deem, be of opinion

opini koysa/koywan kom koysa/koywan — regard/hold smth/smb as smth/smb

opini ta kom amiga — regard him/her as a friend

opini koysa kom muhim — believe smth to be important

me opini se kom may deba — I regard it as my duty

opina — (kwo) opinion

segun may opina — in my opinion / view




oposi — (zwo) oppose

oposa — (kwo) opposition

oposer — (kwo) oppositionist; opponent




opresi — (zwo) oppress

opresa — (kwo) oppression




optimale — (kwel) optimal, optimum




ora — (kwo) hour

afte dwa ora — in two hours

pa haf-ora afte to — in half an hour after that




orak — (kwo) sickle




oranja — (kwo) orange (fruit)

oranja jus — orange juice




oranje — (kwel) orange (colour)




orda — (kwo) order (request)

defai orda — cancel an order

ordi — (zwo) order, book




orden — (kwo) order (awarded decoration; organization — cf. “orda”, “ordina”, “komanda”)




ordina — (kwo) order (arrangement; the state of being well arranged)

ordini — (zwo) put in order; arrange

desordini — (zwo) disarrange

ordini swa — (zwo) tidy oneself up, set oneself to rights

no-ordina — (kwo) disorder

ordinnik — (kwo) an orderly person

no-ordinnik — (kwo) sloven




organ — (kwo) organ (part of organism — cf. “orgel”)




organike — (kwel) organic (biol., chem.)

organike kemia — organic chemistry

Ant.: no-organike




organisi — (zwo) organize

organising — (kwo) organization (process)

organisa — (kwo) organization (quality of being organized or way in which smth is organized)

organisasion — (kwo) organization (group of people)




organisma — (kwo) organism (lit. and fig.)




orgel — (kwo) organ (musical instrument — cf. “organ”)

orgelista — (kwo) organist, organ player




orienti — (zwo) orient, orientate

orienti swa — orient oneself

orienta — (kwo) orientation

orienting — (kwo) orienteering

orientika — (kwo) reference point




origin — (kwo) origin

origini — (kwo) originate, arise, begin




originale — (kwel) 1) original (first, preceding all others in time)

2) original (fresh, unusual)

originala — (kwo) original (first form, firsthand work)

originalnik — (kwo) original (odd or curious person)




orla — (kwo) eagle




ornamenta — (kwo) ornament, ornamental pattern




orni — (zwo) adorn, embellish, bedeck

ornika — (kwo) adornment, embellishment




ortodoxia — (kwo) orthodoxy (cf. «pravaslavia»)

ortodoxike — (kwel) orthodox




osean — (kwo) ocean




osi — (zwo) dare (be courageous or bold enough to)




osobe — (kwel) especial, particular

osobem — (komo) especially, particularly

osobitaa — (kwo) peculiarity, (special) feature




osoka — (kwo) sedge, carex




osta — (kwo) bone

ostalik — (kwel) bony

ostifi — (zwo) ossify

ostifa — (kwo) ossification




Osterraih — (kwo) Austria




ot — (kwanto) eight (8)

ot-ney — eighth

otshi — eighty

otsto — eight hundred




oton — (kwo) autumn, fall

fa-oton — autumn is coming

oton(-ney) — (kwel) autumn




otre — (inplas-kwel) other, another

ni un ni otre — neither one nor the other

pa otre taraf — on the other hand

otrem — in other way, differently; otherwise

otrelok — (inplas-komo) in another place, somewhere else

a otrelok — to another place

otreves — (inplas-komo) next time, another time

Me mangi nau. Nu diskusi ba se otreves. — I am busy now. Let us discuss it another time




ouran — (komo) casually, accidentally; inadvertently

Syn.: kasualem




oval — (kwo) oval

oval(-ney) — (kwel) oval




ovo — (kwo) egg

ovoshel — (kwo) eggshell

ovosela — (kwo) ovicell

ovotot — (kwo) spawn




oxa — (kwo) ox




oxigen — (kwo) oxygen




pa — (konekti) preposition of a wide meaning, often can be used instead of other prepositions

1) indicates place, time (at, on, in)

pa dom – at home

pa mur – on the wall

pa gata – in the street

sidi pa tabla – sit at the table

London lagi pa Tems – London lies on the Thames

ob mani es pa yu? – is the money with you?

pa vesna – in spring

2) introduces adverbial phrase

shwo pa inglish – speak English

pa un-ney kansa – by first sight

ta jivi pa shi kilometra fon mar – he lives 10 km from the see

pa exponenta – exponentially

pa ol mogsa – with all one's might

pa char – four (together)

pa fortuna – fortunately

pa versa – by/in verses

It loki pa dwa dey de going (de safara). — It takes two-day journey to get there.




padma — (kwo) lotus




pagale — (kwel) crazy, mad

pagalitaa — (kwo) craziness, madness

pagalifi — (zwo) go mad

pagala, pagalnik — (kwo) madman, lunatic




pagi — (zwo) pay (give money)

paga — (kwo) pay, payment

prepaga — (kwo) prepayment, upfront payment, advance (of money)




pah — (kwo) groin (anatomy)




pai — (zwo) receive, get; succeed, achieve, obtain

nulwan pai kapti ta — nobody managed to catch it

pai kreki nuta — to (succesfully) crack the nut

pai ofni ken — to open can (at last)

Nu pai zwo to! — We did it!




paisaja — (kwo) landscape, scenery




paja — (kwo) page




pajo — (kwo) page (serving boy)




pak — (kwo) pack, package, parcel

paki — (zwo) pack

depaki — (zwo) unpack




paketa — (kwo) packet




pakla — (kwo) tow, oakum




palak — (kwo) eyelid




palas — (kwo) palace




pale — (kwel) pale (light in colour)

palifi — (zwo) turn/grow pale

palenesa — (kwo) paleness, pallor




paliati — (zwo) palliate, alleviate

paliata — (kwo) palliation, alleviation

paliative — (kwel) palliative




palma — (kwo) palm (palm tree — cf. “pama”)

palma-semdi — Palm Sunday




paloma — (kwo) pigeon, dove

salam-paloma — dove of peace




palpi — (zwo) feel (about), palpate

palpi-shuki — grope

palpa — (kwo) feeling (by touch), palpation

palpibile — (kwel) palpable




palto — (kwo) coat, overcoat

farwapalto — fur coat




pama — (kwo) palm (of hand)

pama-holika — (kwo) hollow of the hand




pan — (kwo) bread

blan pan — (kwo) white bread

pankin — (kwo) bread roll, bun

panshop — (kwo) baker’s

pandan — (kwo) bread box/bin

suhpan — (kwo) dried crust, rusk, zwieback

halka-pan — (kwo) bagel, ring-shaped roll




panika — (kwo) panic

sta pa panika — be in panic, be panic-stricken




panta — (kwo) trousers, pants

pantakin — (kwo) underpants




pantalon — (kwo) breeches (clothing)




pantera — (kwo) panther




panza — (kwo) armour




pao — (kwo) bubble; blister

paovati — (zwo) bubble, form bubbles




papa — (kwo) dad, daddy, papa




papagay — (kwo) parrot

fai papagay, papagayvati — (zwo) parrot (to repeat or imitate, esp.without understanding)




papir — (kwo) paper




paprika — (kwo) paprika




para — (kwo) pair, couple

para dey — a couple of days

para-ney — (kwel) pair, forming a pair

gamipara — (kwo) married couple

para-jen — (kwo) match (person)

pari — (zwo) pair




parada — (kwo) parade (procession or ceremonial review of troops)




paradigma — (kwo) paradigm (philos., gram.)




paradoxa — (kwo) paradox

paradoxale — (kwel) paradoxical

paradoxalem — (komo) paradoxically




paragraf — (kwo) paragraph




paralele — (kwel) parallel

paralela — (kwo) parallel




paralisa — (kwo) paralysis, palsy

paralisi — (zwo) paralyze




parapeta — (kwo) parapet; railing, handrail, banisters




parashut — (kwo) parachute




parasita — (kwo) parasite

parasitike — (kwel) parasitic




parda — (kwo) curtain

fer-ney parda — iron curtain

Syn.: kurtena




pardoni — (zwo) forgive, pardon

pardona — (kwo) forgiveness, pardon




pare — (kwel) even (divisible by 2)

Ant.: nopare




parka — (kwo) park




parlamenta — (kwo) parlament




parola — (kwo) password




parpar — (kwo) butterfly




parta — (kwo) part

parta-ney (parte) — (kwel) partial

parta-nem (partem) — (komo) partly, partially

parti — (zwo) share, divide, part

parti suy senta kun otres — share one's feelings with others




partia — (kwo) party (group taking one side of smth; political group — cf. “pati”)




partikla — (kwo) particle




partikulare — (kwel) particular (not general or universal)

partikularitaa — (kwo) particularity (the quality or state of being particular rather than general; a specific point or detail, a particular)




partisipi — (zwo) participate

partisipa — (zwo) participation

partisiper — (zwo) participant, participator




partner — (kwo) partner (of either sex)

gin-partner, partnerina — (kwo) female partner




parus — (kwo) sail (of a ship or boat)

parus-kapra — (kwo) sailcloth




pas — (konekti-komo) past, by

lu go-te pas nu — he went past us

lu go-te pas — he went past




pasaja — (kwo) passageway, gangway, aisle




pashu — (kwo) cattle

syao pashu — small cattle

pashudom — (kwo) cattle-shed




pasi — (zwo) pass; pass by

pasi-ney (pasen) yar — the past year

pasi nocha — pass night

taim pasi lentem — the time drags on/crawls

pasiwat — (kwo) past (the period of time that has already happened)

(mah-)pasi — (zwo) pass, spend (time)

pasijen — (kwo) passer-by

pasiworda — (kwo) password (also “parola”)

trapasi — (zwo) pass through, make one's way through

pasi-auto — (kwo) passing car

Pren un pasi-auto e lai ba kway! — Take a passing car and come quick!




pasienta — (kwo) patient (one who receives medical attention)




pasion — (kwo) passion

pasion-ney — (kwel) passionate




pasive — (kwel) passive

pasivitaa — (kwel) passivity




paska — (kwo) Easter




pasporta — (kwo) passport




pasta — (kwo) paste

panpasta — (kwo) dough




pasturi — (zwo) graze, pasture

pasturi-sha — (kwo) herder, herdsman, shepherd (also “gurtayuan”)




pata — (kwo) paw

pa char pata — on all fours

mah swa nich pa char pata — go down on all fours




patata — (kwo) potato, potatoes

patata-sup — potato soup




patenta — (kwo) patent (declaration issued by a government agency to an inventor)

patenti — (zwo) patent

patenting — (kwo) patenting




pati — (kwo) party (social gathering especially for pleasure or amusement— cf. “partia”)




patina — (kwo) patina (film on copper)




patlajan — (kwo) eggplant, aubergine




patra — (kwo) father

prapatra — (kwo) forefather

mata-patra — (kwo) parents

patralanda — (kwo) fatherland

See also: papa




patranam — (kwo) patronymic (name)




patriota — (kwo) patriot




patrul — (kwo) patrol

patruli — (zwo) patrol




paun — (kwo) pound (unit of mass; unit of currency)




pausa — (kwo) pause

pausi — (zwo) pause

leson-pausa — (kwo) break, intermission (between lessons)




pava — (kwo) peafowl

pavo — (kwo) peacock

pavina — (kwo) peahen

yunpava — (kwo) peachick




pavimenta — (kwo) pavement

pavimenti — (zwo) pave; cobble




pay — (kwo) pie




peda — (kwo) foot

pedi — (zwo) go on foot

pedisoldata — (kwo) infantryman

peditrupa — (kwo) infantry

pedi-sha, pedijen — (kwo) pedestrian

peding — (kwo) walking; footrace




pedal — (kwo) pedal

presi pedal — press a pedal

depresi pedal — depress a pedal

gaspedal — accelerator pedal




pega — (kwo) peg (a cylindrical wooden, metal etc. object used to fasten; a protrusion used to hang things on)




peki — (zwo) bake

peking — (kwo) baking

pekitura — (kwo) pastry

pekiguan — (kwo) bakery

peker — (kwo) baker




pelatuk — (kwo) woodpecker




pelikula — (kwo) film (pellicle, thin sheet or coating — cf. “filma”)




pelin — (kwo) wormwood, absinth




pen — (kwo) tub

banipen — (kwo) bathtub




pendi — (zwo) hang (intr./tr.)

bependi — (zwo) hang round (with), cover (with)

bependi mur bay piktura — cover the wall with pictures

pendi-kili — (zwo) hang, kill by hanging

pendika — (kwo) rack, hanger




pendula — (kwo) pendulum




penetri — (zwo) penetrate

penetra — (kwo) penetration, permeation




peni — 1) (zwo) to take the trouble (to do smth or to do smth difficult of execution), to take pains

Me peni zwo se hao. — I take pains in doing it well.

To bu es penival. — That is nor worth the trouble.

pena — (kwo) pains, trouble, strain

2) (kwo) penny, pence




penis — (kwo) penis




pension — (kwo) pension (money)




pepa — (kwo) pepper (paprika is "paprika")

fai pepa — (zwo) pepper

pepadan — (kwo) pepper pot




pepla — (kwo) ashes

pepladan — (kwo) ash-tray

peplisi — (zwo) burn to ashes

peplalok — (kwo) site of fire, ashes




per — (konekti) per, for each/every

6% per yar — 6% per year

100 gram per kilo — 100 gram per kilo

100 kilometra per ora — 100 km per hour

pet dolar per jen — 5 dollars per head




pera — (kwo) pear




perfekte — (kwel) perfect

perfektitaa — (kwo) perfection (quality)

perfektisi — (zwo) perfect, improve, polish up

swa-perfektisa — (kwo) self-perfection




perfori — (zwo) perforate

perfora — (kwo) perforation




perioda — (kwo) period

periodike — (kwel) periodical

periodika — (kwo) periodical




perla — (kwo) pearl(s)




permanente — (kwel) permanent (lasting for an indefinitely long time)




permiti — (zwo) permit, allow

permita — (kwo) permission

permitibile — (kwel) permissible




perplexe — (kwel) perplexed, puzzled

perplexitaa — (kwo) perplexity




persekwi — (zwo) persecute, pursue, chase

persekwa — (kwo) persecution; pursuit, chase




persepti — (zwo) perceive

persepta — (kwo) perception

perseptibile — (kwel) perceptible




persik — (kwo) peach




persona — (kwo) person; character, personage

personale — (kwel) personal

personalem — (komo) personally

personalitaa — (kwo) personality




personifiki — (zwo) personify

personifika — (kwo) personification




perspektive — (kwel) perspective

perspektiva — (kwo) perspective




perteni — (zwo) belong, pertain




peruka — (kwo) wig, peruke




pes — (kwo) piece (separated part — cf. "ge")

char pes sukra — 4 pieces of sugar




pesta — (kwo) plague




pet — (kwanto) five (5)

petshi — fifty

petsto — five hundred

pet-ney — fifth




petala — (kwo) petal




petdi — (kwo) Friday




petision — (kwo) petition, written request

fai petision, petisioni — (zwo) petition, present a petition




pi — (zwo) drink

pi-akwa — drinking water

pia — (kwo) drinking; drink

fai pia pro koywan — drink the health of smb.

piwat — (kwo) drink, beverage

piguan — (kwo) pub, public house

pilok— (kwo) watering place




piano — (kwo) piano

baji/fai piano — play piano




piesa — (kwo) play (theatrical performance), piece (musical composition, literary work)




piga — (kwo) leather

piga ganta — leather gloves




pijama — (kwo) pyjamas




pikee — (kwo) pique (fabric)




piki — (zwo) prick, sting

frosta piki fas — frost stings the face

pika — (kwo) prick, puncture

piki-she — (kwel) prickly




pikti — (zwo) depict, picture, paint

pikter — (kwo) painter (artist who paints pictures)

piktura — (kwo) picture, image

kitaba kun jamile piktura — a book with beautiful pictures

pikting — (kwo) painting (art)

piktival — (kwel) picturesque




pila — (kwo) pile (heap)

pila de kitabas — pile of books

pila de pyata — pile of plates




pilota — (kwo) pilot (of aircraft or ship)




pimenta — (kwo) pimento; allspice




pin — (kwo) commodity, article(s), goods, ware(s)




pina — (kwo) pine

pina shulin — pine forest, pinery




pinchan — (kwel) ordinary, usual

pinchanem — (komo) ordinarily, usually




pinguin — (kwo) penguin




pinsel — (kwo) (artist’s or painter’s) brush




pinsi — (zwo) pinch

pinsa — (kwo) pinch

pinser — (kwo) pincers, pliers

pinserkin — (kwo) tweezers




pinta — (kwo) paint (substance)

pinti — (zwo) paint (apply paint to — cf. "pikti")

pintaken — (kwo) can of paint

pinter — (kwo) painter (laborer — cf. "pikter")




pipa — (kwo) (tobacco) pipe (cf. “duda”, “tuba”)




pipeta — (kwo) pipette, medicine dropper




pipsi — (zwo) peep, cheep




pirsi — (zwo) pierce

Flecha pirsi luy sina. — The arrow pierced his chest.

pirsi dun — to pierce a hole

pirsing — (kwo) piercing




pisi — (zwo) piss

Syn.: urini




pisina — (kwo) swimming pool




pistaka — (kwo) pistachio




pistola — (kwo) pistol, handgun




piti — (zwo) have compassion on; pity

pita — (kwo) compassion; pity

piti-she, pitishil — (kwel) compassionate, pitiful

nopiti-she, nopitishil — (kwel) ruthless, pitiless, merciless

pitival — (kwel) pitiable




pitsa — (kwo) pizza




plaki — (zwo) weep, cry

plaki-shwo — lament, keen

plaka — (kwo) weeping

plaknik — (kwo) weeper, cry-baby, sniveller




plan — (kwo) plan

plani — (zwo) plan

planing — (kwo) planning




plane — (kwel) plane, level, even, flat (cf. "plate")

plana — (kwo) plane

planika — (kwo) plain; smth level

planisi — (zwo) even, level, plane

planisa — (kwo) levelling, smoothing




planeta — (kwo) planet

planeta-ney — (kwel) planetary




planka — (kwo) plank, board

planka-kama — (kwo) plank bed




planta — (kwo) plant (organism)

planti — (zwo) plant

beplanti agra bay repa — to plant the field with turnips

planting — (kwo) planting (act)

plantiwat — (kwo) planted plant

plantura — (kwo) plantation, planting (also "plantasion")




plasa — (kwo) place (for smth or smb; room, space — cf. “loko”)

okupi plasa — to occupy a place

Plasa ye. — There are free places./There is room.

Plasa yok. — There are no places./There is no room.

plasi — (zwo) place

fa-plasi — (zwo) find room, go in, be placed




plasma — (kwo) plasma




plasta — (kwo) plaster (adhesive bandage)

lipi-plasta — (kwo) sticking plaster




plastik — (kwo) plastic (material)

plastik(-ney) — (kwel) plastic




plastike — (kwel) plastic (capable of being shaped or formed)




plataforma — (kwo) platform




plate — (kwel) flat, flattened

platbota — flat-boat

platpeda — flat-foot

plata — (kwo) plate, plaque, slab

platem — (komo) flatways, flatwise

plati — (zwo) flatten (tr./intr.)

plating — (kwo) flattening (process)

platisi — (zwo) flatten (tr.)

platifi — (zwo) flatten (intr.)

platifa — (kwo) flattening (act or result)




platin — (kwo) platinum




plato — (kwo) plateau, tableland




playa — (kwo) beach




plecha — (kwo) shoulder

ek-lifti plechas — shrug one's shoulders

plechavati — (zwo) shoulder




plei — (zwo) play (cf. "baji")

plei ruola — play role

pleisa — (kwo) play (cf. “geim”)

pleika — (kwo) plaything, toy

pleier — (kwo) player

plei-sha — (kwo) player (person)




plen — (kwo) captivity

plenjen — (kwo) captive, prisoner

plenisi — (zwo) take prisoner




plesir — (kwo) pleasure

kun plesir — with pleasure




pleski — (zwo) splash, plash, lap, swash

pleska — (kwo) splash, plash, lapping, swash

ek-pleska — (kwo) a splash (single)




plexi — (zwo) braid, plait, twine, wreathe, weave

plexika — (kwo) smth (inter)twined; plait, braid

plexus — (kwo) plexus (anatomy)




pliga — (kwo) fold; crease, plait

pligi — (zwo) fold

depligi — (zwo) unfold

pligibile — (kwel) folding (designed to fold)




plis — (exklami) please

Dai a me chiza plis. — Give me the spoon please.




plota — (kwo) raft




pluga — (kwo) plough, plow

plugi — (zwo) plough

pluging — (kwo) ploughing, tillage

pluger — (kwo) plowman, ploughman

pluga-sikin — (kwo) ploughshare




pluki — (zwo) pluck, cull, gather, pick (fruits, flowers, etc.); pluck (pull out the hair or feather of)




pluma — (kwo) feather, plume

plumamao — (kwo) plumage, feathering




plumba — (kwo) lead (metal)




plunji — (zwo) dive, plunge (also into an activity)

plunja — (kwo) dive, plunge

plunjer — (kwo) diver




pluri — (inplas-kwanto) several

Me hev pluri kitaba. — I have several books.

Me he visiti ela pluri ves. — I visited her several times.

pluri-forma, plurika — (kwo) plural (gram.)




plus — (kwo, konekti, komo) plus (plus sign; advantage; besides)

To es plus fo yu. — That is a plus for you.

Char plus pet es nin. — Four plus five is nine.

plus-ney — (kwel) plus, extra, additional

plusi — (zwo) add




Pluton — (kwo) Pluto




pluva — (kwo) rain

pluvi — (zwo) rain

pluvi gro — it is pouring, it pours

pluvi-ki — it is drizzling, it drizzles

pluvinka — (kwo) raindrop

aispluva — (kwo) hail




po — (konekti) po (refers to distribution in portions)

olo es po tri dolar — everything costs 3 dollars each piece

po un jen — one at a time, one by one

po tri — in threes

po shao — in small portions

shao-po-shao — little by little




poda — (kwo) floor (cf. “etaja”)




podle — (kwel) vile; mean; foul

podla — (kwo) scoundrel, rascal, villain




poema — (kwo) poem




poesia — (kwo) poetry




poeta — (kwo) poet

poetike — (kwel) poetic

shma-poeta — (kwo) poetaster




pokloni — (zwo) bow (in greeting, courtesy, veneration, etc.)

poklona — (kwo) bow




pol — (kwo) pole (either extremity of an axis through a sphere; a magnetic pole)

polare — (kwel) polar

polaritaa — (kwo) polarity

polarisi — (zwo) polarize (tr.)

polarisa — (kwo) polarization




poliglota — (kwo) polyglot




Polinesia — (kwo) Polynesia




polis — (kwo) police

polisyuan — (kwo) policeman

polisguan — (kwo) police station




politika — (kwo) policy, politics

politike — (kwo) political

politiker — (kwo) politician




polsa — (kwo) wrist (the joint between the hand and the forearm)

See also: pulsa




polva — (kwo) dust

polvinka — (kwo) speck of dust

polvisi — (zwo) spray, atomize, pulverize

polviser — (kwo) sprayer, atomizer, pulverizer




pompa — (kwo) pomp, state

fai pompa — behave pompously

pompa-ney, pompaful — (kwel) pompous




pon — (zwo) put

pon se dar — put it there

bepon tabla — lay the table




pondi — (zwo) weigh (determine weight; consider — cf. “vegi”)

ponding — (kwo) weighing

pondika — (kwo) balance, scales (also «vaka»)

pondidan — (kwo) scale (either of the pans, trays or dishes of a balance or scales)




poni — (kwo) pony




ponta — (kwo) bridge




pop — (kwo) Christian priest




popa — (kwo) stern, poop; buttocks, bottom




popla — (kwo) poplar




populare — (kwo) popular




populasion — (kwo) population




por — (konekti) due to, because of

Danke por atenta! — Thank you for your attention!

Nu bu go promeni por bade meteo. — We are not going for a walk due to bad weather.

Me lai por vidi luma in yur winda. – I came because of seeing light in your windows.




porcha — (kwo) porch




porti — (zwo) bear, carry; wear

raki-porti — convey or transport in a vehicle

porti wek — (zwo) take away, carry away

porting — (kwo) carrying, bearing

portibile — (kwel) portable

portisulam — ladder

porter — (kwo) porter

portika — (kwo) stretcher, litter

portiwat — (kwo) what is carried, load, burden




portreta — (kwo) portrait




portu — (kwo) port, harbour




Portugal — Portugal

Portugal-jen — inhabitant/citizen of Portugal




portuges — (kwel, kwo) Portuguese (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Portuguese (person of Portuguese ethnicity); Portuguese language




posa — (kwo) pose, posture




posesi — (zwo) possess

poseser — (kwo) owner, proprietor, possessor, holder

ardaposeser — (kwo) landowner

en-posesi — (zwo) take possession of




posh — (kwo) pocket

poshtuh — (kwo) handkerchief




posible — (kwel) possible

buposible — impossible

posiblitaa — (kwo) possibility

mah-posible — (zwo) enable (also “mogisi”)




posision — (kwo) position

posision-ney — (kwel) positional




positive — (kwel) positive

positiva — (kwo) positive




posta — (kwo) 1) post (position of employment; outpost, guard-post — cf. "meil"); 2) post (message in an electronic forum)

posti — (zwo) post (send to an electronic forum)




pot — (kwo) pot (a household vessel of medium size)

florpot — (kwo) flowerpot

kukipot — (kwo) cooking pot




potensial — (kwo) potential (ability or capacity for growth; physical notion)




potente — (kwel) potential, potent, endowed with energy adequate to a result

potensia — (kwo) potentiality, potency, ability or capacity to perform; math. power

potensia de motor — engine potency




povre — (kwel) poor (with little money; to be pitied)

povre jen — poor man; pauper

povre jenta — the poor

povritaa — (kwo) poverty

povra (povro, povrina) — (kwo) poor fellow




poy — (taim-komo) then, later

Me bu mog go adar nau, me ve go poy. — I cannot go there now, I shall go later.

un-nem... poy — first... then

Un-nem me go a skola, poy a dom. — First I go to school, then home.




pra — (syao) 1) remote kinship

praopa — great-grandfather

prajanmer — forebear

prakinda — descendant, offspring, scion

2) primordiality, antiquity

pralingwa — parent language

prajen — ancestor, forefather




prais — (kwo) price

prais-lista — (kwo) price list




praktika — (kwo) practice

praktike — (kwel) practical, pertaining to practice

praktikem — (komo) practically

praktiki — (zwo) practice, exercise, put into practice

praktiki-she leker — a practical doctor




pravaslavia — (kwo) Orthodoxy (religion)

pravaslavike — (kwel) Orthodox

pravaslavike Kirka — Orthodox Church




prave — (kwel) right (correct, just, true, appropriate; synonyms with narrower meaning are “vere, juste, korekte”)

prave jawaba — right answer

prave desida — sound decision

prave dao — right way

yu es prave — you are right

pravitaa — (kwo) rightness

noprave — (kwel) wrong

pravnik — (kwo) righteous man




pre — (syao) pre-, fore-

previdi — to foresee

preshwo — to foretell

pre-existi — to preexist

prenam — forename

preyeri — the day before yesterday

pregoer — predecessor

prejuda — prejudice

prelaste — penultimate




preferi — (zwo) prefer

me preferi pi chay — I better drink tea

preferi koysa pyu kem koysa — to prefer smth to smth

prefera — (kwo) preference

preferival — (kwel) preferable, preferred

preferivalem — (komo) preferably




pregi — (zwo) ask for, beg, request

pregi-pai — obtain by request, asking

prega — (kwo) request

gro-pregi — (zwo) entreat, implore, supplicate, beseech

gro-prega — (kwo) entreaty




prei — (zwo) pray

preisa — (kwo) prayer

preiyuan — (kwo) priest

preikitaba — (kwo) prayer book

preijuk — (kwo) mantis




prelime — (kwel) preliminary




premia — (kwo) bonus, premium (also finance), prize

Nobel premia — Nobel Prize




pren — (zwo) take

prensa — (kwo) taking




pres — (kwo) press (the entirety of media and agencies that collect, publish, transmit, or broadcast the news — cf. "preser")




presedi — (zwo) precede

presedi-she — (kwel) preceding

preseda — (kwo) precedence




presente — (kwel) present (not absent; current)

presensia — (kwo) presence




preservi — (zwo) preserve (fon koysa — from smth), save, keep from injury




presi — (zwo) press

ek-presi handa — shake hand

presi labas — press one's lips together

taim presi — the time presses

preser — (kwo) press (a devise used to apply pressure to an item)

presa — (kwo) pressure




presidenta — (kwo) president; chairman




presigna — (kwo) omen, presage, augury

presigni — (zwo) portend, presage, forebode

(Origin: pre+signa)




preskribi — (zwo) prescribe, direct, order

preskriba — (kwo) precept, direction; prescription




presuposi — (zwo) presuppose, imply as an antecedent condition




preventi — (zwo) prevent

preventa — (kwo) prevention




preworda — (zwo) preface, foreword




pri — (sta) to like

Me pri flor. — I like flowers.

Me pri sey flor. — I like this flower.

May kinda pri rasmi. — My child likes to draw.

pria — (kwo) liking

prival — (kwel) lovely, alluring, nice




priate — (kwel) agreeable, pleasant, pleasing

nopriate — (kwel) disagreeable, unpleasant




prichi — (zwo) preach

pricha — (kwo) sermon, preaching, preachment




primare — (kwel) primary (elementary, first or lowest in order)




prime — (kwel) prime (first in importance or quality), primary, paramount

es prime kwesta — it’s a question of primary importance

primem — (komo) above all, first of all; primarily, chiefly, mainly, principally




primitive — (kwel) primitive




primula — (kwo) primula, primrose




prinsa — (kwo) prince




prinsip — (kwo) principle

prinsip-ney — (kwel) of principle




printi — (zwo) print

printa, printing — (kwo) print, printing

printer — (kwo) printer

printiguan — (kwo) printing house




pris — (kwo) prize (smth striven for in a contest)




prisenti — (zwo) present (reveal, show)

prisenta — (kwo) presentation




prison — (kwo) prison, jail

prisonyuan — (kwo) jailer




private — (kwel) private




privilegia — (kwo) privilege




pro — (konekti-syao) pro, in favour of

pro-westa-ney stata — a pro-Western state

Nu es pro guverna. — We support government.

Ob yu es pro may idea? — Do you support my idea?




proba — (kwo) trial, test; sample

probi — (zwo) sample (to take or to test a sample), test; try on; try out (cf. “trai”)




probable — (kwel) probable, likely

shao-probable — unlikely, not likely

probablem — (komo) probably (see also “shayad”)

probablitaa — (kwo) probability




problema — (kwo) problem

problema yok! — no problem!




probus — (kwo) proboscis (of elephant, of insect)




produkta — (kwo) product

produkti — (zwo) produce

produktive — (kwel) productive

produktivitaa — (kwo) productivity

produkter — (kwo) producer

produkting — (kwo) production

produktura — (kwo) produce, items/amount produced




profesion — (kwo) profession, occupation

See also: profi




profesor — (kwo) professor




profeta — (kwo) prophet, seer

profeti — (zwo) prophesy, augur

profetura — (kwo) prophecy




profi — (kwo) professional (expert), pro

profi-ney — (kwel) professional




profit — (kwo) profit

profit-ney — (kwel) profitable

profiti — (zwo) profit




prognosa — (kwo) prognosis, forecast

prognosi — (zwo) prognose




programa — (kwo) programme

programi — (zwo) programme

programing — (kwo) programming

programista — (kwo) programer




progresa — (kwo) progress

progresi — (zwo) progress




prohibi — (zwo) prohibit, forbid, interdict

prohiba — (kwo) prohibition, interdiction, ban




Proisen — (kwo) Prussia




proisih — (kwel, kwo) Prussian




proklami — (zwo) proclaim, cry out

proklama — (kwo) proclamation




prolongi — (zwo) prolong, lengthen, extend

prolonga — (kwo) prolongation




promeni — (zwo) stroll, go for a walk

pyu hao ke yu go promeni — you better go for a walk

promena — (kwo) walk, stroll




pronunsi — (zwo) pronounce (utter, say words)

pronunsa — (kwo) pronunciation




propagandi — (zwo) propagandize

propaganda — (kwo) propaganda

propagander — (kwo) propagandizer, propagandist




propagi — (zwo) propagate (extend, spread)

propaga — (kwo) propagation (dissemination, diffusion)




prope — (kwel) own

prope nam — proper name

propisi — (zwo) appropriate, take for one’s own

Syn.: swa-ney




proporsion — (kwo) proportion

proporsion-ney — (kwel) proportional, proportionate

proporsion-nem — (komo) proportionally




proposi — (zwo) propose (suggest)

proposa — (kwo) proposal, proposition, suggestion

proposa om salam — peace proposal




prosa — (kwo) prose

prosa-ney, prosalik — (kwo) prosaic




prosenta — (kwo) percent




prosesa — (kwo) process




prosesion — (kwo) procession, train




prostituta — (kwo) prostitute




protekti — (zwo) protect

protekta — (kwo) protection

protekter — (kwo) protector

protektive — (kwel) protective




protesti — (zwo) protest

protesti kontra gwer — protest against the war

protesta — (kwo) protest




prototip — (kwo) prototype




provinsia — (kwo) province

provinsiale — (kwel) provincial




proyekta — (kwo) project

proyekti — (zwo) project




pruf — (kwel) proof (firm or successful in resisting)

akwapruf kloka — waterproof watch

pruf kontra temta — proof against temptation




pruja — (kwo) spring (mechanical device — cf. "vesna")

pruji — (zwo) be springy/resilient

pruji-she — (kwel) springy, resilient




pruta — (kwo) rod (bar; twig)

grata-pruta — grate bars




pruvi — (zwo) prove (give proof)

pruva — (kwo) proof




psikiatria — (kwo) psychiatry

psikiatrike — (kwel) psychiatric

psikiatrier — (kwo) psychiatrist, psychiater




psikika — (kwo) psyche

psikike — (kwel) psychic, psychical




psora — (kwo) any evident skin disease

psora-ney (psore) — (kwo) mangy, scabby




publika — (kwo) public; audience

publike — (kwel) public

publikisi — (zwo) publish, make public




puda — (kwo) powder

dentapuda — tooth-powder

woshpuda — washing powder

lignapuda — sawdust




pudla — (kwo) poodle




puha — (kwo) fluff, fuzz, fluffy covering (down; thin hair)

puha-ney (puhe) — (kwel) downy, fluffy

puhisi — (zwo) fluff up




puhle — (kwel) swollen; plump

puhlifi — (zwo) swell

puhlifa — (kwo) swelling

puhlika — (kwo) tumor




puji — (zwo) worship

puja — (kwo) worship




pula — (kwo) domestic fowl(s), poultry

pula-ferma — poultry farm




pulga — (kwo) flea




pulmon — (kwo) lung

pulmones — the lungs




pulova — (kwo) sweater, pullover




pulsa — (kwo) pulse




puma — (kwo) puma




pumbe — (kwel) silly (may be used without insulting connotations), simple-minded, goofy

pumba — (kwo) silly, simpleton, ninny, duffer

pumbitaa — (kwo) folly

See also: stupide




pumpa — (kwo) pump

pumpi — (zwo) pump

pumping — (kwo) pumping




puni — (zwo) punish

puna — (kwo) punishment, penalty

manipuna — (kwo) fine (a payment or fee issued as punishment for breaking the law)

punitive — (kwel) punitive

punival — (kwel) deserving punishment




punta — (kwo) point (dot; full stop, period; item or entry in list; score; place or locality)

puntakoma — (kwo) semicolon

dwapunta — (kwo) colon (punctuation mark)

vidipunta — (kwo) point of view, standpoint

punta-konta — (kwo) score (number of points earned)




pupila — (kwo) pupil (of eye)




pur — (konekti) 1) for, in exchange for

Tu kupi signifi pren koysa pur mani. — To buy means to take something for money.

pur to — in return, instead, but then

2) for, in place of

chi pur tri jen — eat for three men




pure — (kwel) pure

pure fantasia — sheer fantasy

puritaa — (kwo) purity

purisi — (zwo) purify

purisa — (kwo) purification




purgi — (zwo) purge (the body, soul, mind, party)

purga — (kwo) purge (act)

purgi-farmak, purgika — (kwo) purge (medicine)




purpur — (kwo) purple

purpur-ney — (kwel) purple




pushi — (zwo) push

pushi-ofni dwar chaurem — push the door wide open

pusha — (kwo) push

pushing — (kwo) pushing




putre — (kwel) rotten; putrid

putri — (zwo) rot (tr./intr.)

putrifi — (zwo) rot, decay, putrefy, become bad

putrisi — (zwo) make rot

putrika — (kwo) rotten stuff




putunhua — (kwo) Putonghua




pwa — (kwo) pea(s)

pwa-sup — pea soup

grin pwa — green peas




pyan — (kwel) drunk, drunken, tipsy

ta es pyan — he/she is drunk

gro-pyan — (kwel) blind drunk

pyannesa — (kwo) intoxication

fa-pyan — (zwo) become drunk

pyani — (zwo) drink hard/heavily

pyaning — (kwo) drunkenness, hard drinking

pyanisi (mah-pyan) — (zwo) make drunk, intoxicate

pyannik — (kwo) drunkard




pyasi — (zwo) thirst

pyasa — (kwo) thirst

fai pyasa — be thirsty

defai pyasa — slake/quench one's thirst

pyasa-ney (pyase) — (kwel) thirsty

sta pyase — be thirsty




pyata — (kwo) plate (dish)

chyen pyata — dinner-plate; side plate

glube pyata — soup-plate




pyu — (gramatika-komo) more

Sey gaseta es pyu interes-ney kem toy-la. — This newspaper is more interesting than that one.

Lu lopi pyu kway kem yu. — He runs quicker than you.

Lu lekti pyu kem me. — He reads more than me.

Me bu yao audi se pyu. — I don't want to listen to this any more.

pyu o meno hao, pyu-meno hao — more or less good

fa-pyu — (zwo) increase (intr.)

mah-pyu — (zwo) increase (tr.)

pyu-nem — (komo) rather, to a greater degree




rabati — (zwo) make a reduction in (value or price)

rabata — (kwo) reduction, diminution, rebate, abatement (in price)




rabia — (kwo) rabies, canine madness

rabike — (kwel) rabid




rada — (kwo) wheel

dentarada — (kwo) gear wheel, cog-wheel




radiatia — (kwo) radiation

radiati — (zwo) radiate




radikal — (kwo) radical (linguistics, chemistry)

radikal-ney — (kwel) radical (linguistics, chemistry)




radikale — (kwel) radical (favouring fundamental change)

radikala — (kwo) radical (a person with radical opinions)




radio — (kwo) radio

radioyuan — (kwo) radio/wireless operator

fai radio — (zwo) wireless, radio, wire




radis — (kwo) radish




raduga — (kwo) rainbow

raduga-ney (raduge) — (kwel) iridescent, rainbow

radugisi — (zwo) rainbow




radyum — (kwo) radium




ragi — (zwo) jut out, protrude, stick up, stick out

ragi-she — (kwel) prominent, protruding




rahim — (kwel) merciful; charitable

rahimtaa — (kwo) mercy, charity, grace

rahimem — (komo) mercifully

norahimem — (komo) unmercifully, cruelly

rahimi — (zwo) spare (treat mercifully)




raidi — (zwo) ride (on a horse), straddle

raidi-shem (raidem) — (komo) astride, astraddle

raider — (kwo) rider




raita — (kwo) right (a legal or moral entitlement)

jen raitas — human rights

voti-raita — the right to vote, suffrage




raja — (kwo) raja




raketa — (kwo) 1) rocket; missile

ala-raketa — cruise missile

2) racquet




raki — (zwo) ride (to transport oneself by means of smth), drive, go by smth (tr./intr.)

raki kaval — ride a horse

raki bus — go by bus

raki tren — go by train

raker — (kwo) rider; passenger

raking — (kwo) ride, riding; drive, driving

rakibile — (kwel) passable, able to be ridden along (road)




rakonti — (zwo) narrate, tell, give an account, recount

rakonta — (kwo) tale, narrative, story, account




rakun — (kwo) racoon




ramla — (kwo) sand

ramlinka — (kwo) grain of sand

ramlakloka — (kwo) hourglass




randa — (kwo) plane (tool)




rane — (kwel) early

ranem — (komo) early

Ant.: tarde




rap — (kwo) rap music

rapi — (zwo) rap




rare — (kwel) rare, infrequent

rarem — (komo) seldom, rarely, infrequently

raritaa — (kwo) rarity (rareness)

rarika — (kwo) rarity (a rare object)




ras — (syao) "separation, division, or dispersion"

muvi to move — rasmuvi to move apart

dai to give — rasdai to distribute, give to several people

sendi to send — rassendi to send out/round

lwo to fall — raslwo to fall to pieces

pon to put — raspon to lay out, place

goni to drive, chase — rasgoni to drive away, disperse, scatter

haki to hack — ras-haki to hack to pieces

pendi to hang — raspendi to hang out

lansi to throw — raslansi to throw around, scatter




rasa — (kwo) race (breed)




rasma — (kwo) drawing (smth drawn: picture, diagram, etc.)

rasmi — (zwo) draw (depict with lines)

rasming — (kwo) drawing (act or instance; the art)




raspi — (zwo) scrape, rasp, abrade, graze

raspitul — (kwo) rasp file

raspitura — (kwo) graze, abrasion




rasta — (kwo) rake (tool)

rasti — (zwo) rake

rasting — (kwo) raking




rasum — (kwo) reason (cognitive faculties; reasoning; ability to think — cf. “kausa”)

jen do rasum — man of reason

rasum-ney — (kwel) reasonable

norasum-ney — (kwel) unreasonable, unwise; foolish

norasum-ney akta — an unwise act

rasum-nem — (komo) reasonably




rata — (kwo) rat




raubi — (zwo) rob, maraud, plunder, loot

rauba — (kwo) robbery, brigandage, pillage

rauber — (kwo) robber, brigand




rauki — (zwo) wheeze; speak hoarsely, croak; be hoarse

rauka — (kwo) wheeze, hoarse sound

rauka-ney (rauke) — (kwel) hoarse, raucous, husky




raunda — (kwo) round (a unit of play)




ravan — (kwo) amble (of a horse)

ravaner, ravan-kaval — (kwo) ambler




ray — (kwo) ray, beam

surya ray — sun’s rays

rayvati — (zwo) beam

smaili-rayvati an koywan — beam at smb




razi — (zwo) shave

razi swa — shave oneself

raza, razing — (kwo) shave, shaving

razer — (kwo) razor




rea — (kwo) rhea




reaksion — (kwo) reaction (chemistry, physics)

reaksioni — (zwo) react (chemistry, physics)




reakti — (zwo) react (act in response)

reakta — (kwo) reaction




reale — (kwel) real

realem — (komo) really

realitaa — (kwo) reality

in realitaa — in reality

realisi — (zwo) realize (make real)

realifi — (zwo) come true, be realized

realisa — (kwo) realization (making real), accomplishment

realisibile — (kwel) realizable




rebeli — (zwo) rebel

rebela — (kwo) rebellion




redakti — (zwo) edit

redakter — (kwo) editor

redakting — (kwo) redaction (process of editing)

redakta (redaktura) — (kwo) redaction, version

tri-ney redakta de kitaba — the third version of the book

redaktitim — (kwo) editorial staff

redaktiguan — (kwo) editorial office




redukti — (zwo) reduce

redukta — (kwo) reduction

redukter — (kwo) reducer




reflekti — (zwo) reflect (throw or bend back from a surface, mirror — cf. "mediti")

reflekta — (kwo) reflection




reflexa — (kwo) reflex (physiology, phychology)




reformi — (zwo) reform, amend for the better

reforma — (kwo) reform




refuja — (kwo) refuge, shelter

refuji — (zwo) refuge, shelter




refusi — (zwo) refuse, decline

refusa — (kwo) refusal




refuti — (zwo) refute, confute, disprove

refuta — (kwo) refutation, disproof




rega — (kwo) monarch, king/queen

rego — (kwo) king

regina — (kwo) queen

regale — (kwel) royal, regal, kingly

regi — (zwo) reign

reging — (kwo) reign

regilok, regilanda — (kwo) kingdom, realm




regei — (kwo) reggae




regimenta — (kwo) regiment




region — (kwo) region (all senses)

regionale — (kwel) regional




register — (kwo) register (computer science, music)




registri — (zwo) register (record, enter, enroll)

registra — (kwo) registration




regula — (kwo) rule, regulation

kom regula — as a rule

regulatot — (kwo) regulations

regulare — (kwel) regular

regularitaa — (kwo) regularity

reguli — (zwo) regulate

reguling — (kwo) regulation (act of regulating)

regulator — (kwo) regulator




reina — (kwo) rein




rejekti — (zwo) reject

rejekta — (kwo) rejection




rejim — (kwo) regime, regimen




rejisor — (kwo) director (in a show or film)




rek — (komo) right (directly, straight; downright, quite)

Es rek stupide. — It's downright stupid.

chi rek bay handas — eat directly by hands

Syn.: ga; direktem




reka — (kwo) streak, stroke, line (cf. “treta”)




reklama — (kwo) advertisement; ad, commercial

reklami — (zwo) advertise

reklaming — (kwo) advertising




rekola — (kwo) harvest

rekoli — (zwo) harvest

rekoling — (kwo) harvesting




rekomendi — (zwo) recommend

rekomenda — (kwo) recommendation




rekompensi — (zwo) recompense, reward, remunerate

rekompensa — (kwo) requital, recompense




rekoni — (zwo) recognize (identify; acknowledge, admit, own)

rekoni lao amiga — recognize an old friend

rekoni pa vos — recognize by voice

rekoni nodependa — recognize independence

rekoni swa-ney galta — admit one's mistakes

rekona — (kwo) recognition




rekonsili — (zwo) reconcile

rekonsila — (kwo) reconciliation




rekor — (kwo) record (unsurpassed measurement)




rekordi — (zwo) record, make an audio/video recording

rekorda — (kwo) record, recording




rekruta — (kwo) recruit, conscript

rekruti — (zwo) recruit, enroll, enlist




rekte — (kwel) straight (not crooked or bent)

rekte linia — a straight line

rektisi — (zwo) straighten

rektangula — (kwo) rectangle




rel — (kwo) rail (the metal bar that makes the track for a railroad)




relatem — (konekti) in relation to, relative to

un relatem otre — one relative to the other

Lu es neutrale relatem sey kwesta. — He is neutral in relation to this question.




relati — (zwo) relate (have connection or relationship)

se bu relati a dela — this doesn’t relate to the matter

relata — (kwo) relation, relationship (connection; condition of being related)

relative — (kwel) relative

relativem — (komo) relatively

relativitaa — (kwo) relativity




religion — (kwo) religion

religion-ney — (kwel) religious (of religion)

religionful — (kwel) religious (having reverence for God)




reloki — (zwo) relocate

relokifi — (zwo) move (to), migrate, transmigrate, resettle

reloka — (kwo) relocation




rema — (kwo) oar

remi — (zwo) row (propel a boat by use of an oar)

reming — (kwo) rowing

ek-reming — a sweep of oars

remer — (kwo) rower, oarsman




remarki — (zwo) remark (express briefly and casually as a comment)

remarka — (kwo) remark (comment, a casual or brief expression of opinion)




remembi — (zwo) remember (have in memory; recall from memory)

rememba — (kwo) recollection, reminiscence

pa rememba de koysa — in memory of smth, in remembrance of smth

mah-remembi — (zwo) remind ("to memorize" is "memorisi")




remorsi — (zwo) feel remorse

remorsa — (kwo) remorse




renegat — (kwo) renegade, apostate

renegat-ney — (kwel) renegade, apostate




rensheng — (kwo) ginseng




renta — (kwo) rent (payment)




renversi — (zwo) capsize, overturn; overthrow, subvert

renversa — (kwo) overthrow




repa — (kwo) turnip




repari — (zwo) repair

repari-ney (reparen) — (kwel) repaired

repara — (kwo) repair

reparaguan — (kwo) repair shop/station




repeli — (zwo) repel (put off, force away)

olea repeli akwa — oil repels water

elektre sharja do same signa repeli mutu — electric charges of the same sign repel one another

repela — (kwo) repelling, repulsion

repeler — (kwo) repellent




repertuar — (kwo) repertoire, repertory




repeti — (zwo) repeat; rehearse (practice by repetition)

repeta — (kwo) repetition; rehearsal




replasi — (zwo) replace, displace, supersede

replasa — (kwo) replacement




repliki — (zwo) cue, retort, rejoin, reply

replika — (kwo) cue, retort, replication, rejoinder, reply




reporta — (kwo) report, account, reportage

reporti — (zwo) report, give an account

reporter — (kwo) reporter




reposi — (zwo) rest, take/have a rest, repose

reposi-stopa — halt, rest

reposa — (kwo) rest, repose




representi — (zwo) represent (stand for; be the representative of; depict)

representer — (kwo) representative




represi — (zwo) repress, check, restrain, suppress, subdue

represi rida — repress a laugh

represa — (kwo) repression




reprodukti — (zwo) reproduce

reprodukta — (kwo) reproduction

reproduktive — (kwel) reproductive




reproshi — (zwo) reproach, upbraid

reprosha — (kwo) reproach, reproof, rebuke

sinreprosha-ney (sinreproshe) — (kwel) irreproachable, blameless




reptila — (kwo) reptile




republika — (kwo) republic

republikista — (kwo) republican




reputasion — (kwo) reputation




resepta — (kwo) recipe




reservi — (zwo) reserve, save, set apart, lay by or up

reserva — (kwo) reserve, store, stock

reserva-ney (reserve) — (kwel) reserve, spare, held in or forming a reserve




residi — (zwo) reside, dwell, abide

residilok — (kwo) residence, abode




resisti — (zwo) resist

resisti koysa — withstand smth

resista — (kwo) resistance




resivi — (zwo) receive

resiva — (kwo) reception

resivi-sha — (kwo) recipient, receiver (person), receptionist

resiviyuan — (kwo) receptionist

resiver — (kwo) receiver (device)

resivi-shamba — (kwo) reception, parlour




resolusion — (kwo) resolution (formal decision)




resolute — (kwel) resolute, determined, firm, unwavering

resolutem — (komo) resolutely

resolutenesa — (kwo) resoluteness, determination, resolution

resoluti — (zwo) be resolved




resolvi — (zwo) solve, resolve (find solution — cf. “solvi”)

resolva — (kwo) solution (answer, plan)




reson — (kwo) reason, grounds; point, sense; argument

resoni — (zwo) reason

resona, resoning — (kwo) reasoning

resonful — (kwel) reasonable, well-grounded, having a point




resora — (kwo) spring (of vehicle)




respekti — (zwo) respect, esteem

respekta — (kwo) respect, esteem

kun gro-respekta — with profound respect

respektival — (kwel) respectable, honourable




responsi — (zwo) be responsible (om koysa — for smth)

responsi-she — (kwel) responsible

responsa — (kwo) responsibility




resti — (zwo) remain (continue unchanged in place, form or state; be left over)

resti stan — remain standing, stand on

resti pa dom — stay at home

resta — (kwo) remainder, rest

resting — (kwo) stay, sojourn

resta-ney (reste) — (kwel) remaining

lo reste — the rest; olo reste — all the rest

restes — the rest (people)

restika — (kwo) remainder; change (money given back)




restori — (zwo) restore

restora — (kwo) restoration




resulta — (kwo) result

resulti — (zwo) result




resumi — (zwo) recapitulate, sum up, summarize

resuma — (kwo) recapitulation, summary, resume




reteni — (zwo) retain, keep in one’s possession

retena — (kwo) retention

Syn.: kipi




returni — (zwo) return (come or go back; give back)

returna — (kwo) return




reumatisma — (kwo) rheumatism (a short form is «reuma»)




reveli — (zwo) reveal, disclose, uncover

reveli ke — as it turned out

reveli swa — reveal oneself

fa-reveli — (zwo) turn out, prove (to be)

riva fa-reveli chyen — the river turned out to be shallow

revela — (kwo) revelation, disclosure




reversa — (kwo) reverse (back side of anything); reversal

sin reversa — irreversibly

reversa-ney (reverse) — (kwel) reverse

reversi — (zwo) reverse (turn or move in the opposite direction)




revolusion — (kwo) revolution (overthrow of government; a momentous change in a situation)

revolusion-ney — (kwel) revolutionary




ri — (syao) “again, anew”

riapari — to reappear

rizwo — to redo




riba — (kwo) rib (anat. and fig.)




riche — (kwel) rich

richenesa — (kwo) richness

fa-riche — (zwo) become rich




ridi — (zwo) laugh

rida — (kwo) laugh

ridival — (kwel) laughable, ridiculous




rif — (kwo) reef (rocks at or near surface of water)




rigide — (kwel) rigid, stiff, unyielding

rigiditaa — (kwo) rigidity




rima — (kwo) rhyme

rimi — (zwo) rhyme




ring — (kwo) (boxing) ring




ris — (kwo) rice




rishte — (kwel) kindred, related, akin

rishtitaa — (kwo) kindred, kinship, relationship

rishtejen, rishta — (kwo) kinsman, relative

rishtejenta — (kwo) kinsfolk, relatives, relations, kin




risin — (kwo) ricin

risinbush — (kwo) castor oil plant

risinolea — (kwo) castor oil




riska — (kwo) risk, hazard

riski — (zwo) risk, hazard




riter — (kwo) knight




ritma — (kwo) rhythm

ritmike — (kwel) rhythmic, rhythmical




ritual — (kwo) ritual, rite

ritual-ney — (kwel) ritual




riva — (kwo) river




riza — (kwo) root (also math.)

kwadra-riza — square root

riza-ney — (kwel) radical (of or pertaining to a root or to the intrinsic nature of smth)




roba — (kwo) dress, gown

shamba-roba — (kwo) dressing gown




rogen — (kwo) rye




roka — (kwo) rock (a relatively large body of rock, as a cliff or peak)




roli — (zwo) roll

rolika — (kwo) roll; roller

rola, roling — (kwo) roll (act), rolling

rolibutas — (kwo) roller skates

See also: volvi




rom — (kwo) rum




romale — (kwel, kwo) Gipsy; a Gipsy; the Gipsy language

jamile romale gana — beautiful Gipsy song




roman — (kwo) novel (rather large — cf. “novela”)

roman-ki — (kwo) short novel, story, narrative




romanike — (kwel) Romance, Romanic

romanike lingwa — Romance language




ronde — (kwel) round

ronda — (kwo) round (a circular object/route)

muva pa ronda — movement in a circle

rondisi — (zwo) round (off)




rosa — (kwo) rose




rose — (kwel) pink, rosy




rosti — (zwo) roast

rostiwat — (kwo) roast (smth roasted or prepared for roasting)




roti — (zwo) rotate, revolve

rota — (kwo) rotation, revolution




rubin — (kwo) ruby (red jem)




rubla — (kwo) rouble




ruchey — (kwo) brook, creek, stream




rude — (kwel) red

rude flaga — red flag

rudish — (kwel) reddish, red (of hair), orange-brown, ginger

rudifi (fa-rude) — (zwo) redden, become red

rudisi (mah-rude) — (zwo) redden, make red




ruf — (kwo) roof

rufshamba — (kwo) attic, garret




ruga — (kwo) wrinkle (crease)

rugi — (zwo) wrinkle, wrinkle up

rugi nos/frenta — wrinkle one’s nose/forehead




ruina — (kwo) ruin (remains), ruins

ruini — (zwo) ruin




ruja — (kwo) rust

ruja-ney (ruje) — (kwel) rusty

ruji — (zwo) rust

buruji-stal — rustless steel, stainless steel

rujing — (kwo) rusting




rul — (kwo) steering apparatus: steering wheel; handlebars; helm; rudder

ruli — (zwo) steer, drive; rule, control




ruola — (kwo) role, part

plei/fai ruola — to act the part




rupti — (zwo) break

rupta — (kwo) breakdown, breakage

ruptishil — (kwel) fragile

shiprupta — (kwo) shipwreck

rasrupti — (zwo) knock to pieces, to smash into smithereens




Rusia — (kwo) Russia

Rusia-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Russia




ruski — (kwel, kwo) Russian (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Russian (person of Russian ethnicity); Russian language




rusla — (kwo) watercourse, (river)bed, channel




ruta — (kwo) route, itinerary




rutabaga — (kwo) swede, rutabaga




rutina — (kwo) routine, rut

rutina-ney (rutine) — (kwel) routine, trivial, commonplace




sabah — (kwo) morning

sey sabah — this morning

manya sabah — tomorrow morning

ranem pa sabah — early in the morning

Hao sabah! — Good morning!

sabahfan — (kwo) breakfast




sabra — (kwo) patience

nosabra — (kwo) impatience

sabra-ney (sabre) — (kwel) patient

sabra-nem (sabrem) — (komo) patiently

nosabre — (kwel) impatient

nosabrefai yao zwo koysa — to be impatient to do smth




sabun — (kwo) soap

sabundan — (kwo) soap dish




sada — (kwo) embankment, bank




safara — (kwo) journey, trip, voyage

Hao safara! — Have a good trip!

safara-gola — (kwo) destination (place set for the end of a journey)

gunsafara — (kwo) business trip

safari — (zwo) travel, journey, voyage

safari-sha — (kwo) traveller

safarnik — (kwo) confirmed traveller




safran — (kwo) saffron




sagarme — (kwel) zealous, fervent, enthusiastic

sagarma — (kwo) enthusiast

sagarmitaa — (kwo) enthusiasm, zeal, fervour




sahe — (kwel) sober

sahitaa — (kwo) sobriety, soberness

sahnik — (kwo) teetotaller, abstainer




sahil — (kwo) coast, shore, bank

sahil de riva — bank of the river

sahil-gata — seafront




sahra — (kwo) desert (barren area)

sahralik — (kwel) desolate, desert, deserted (uninhabited)




saif — (kwo) summer

garme saif — hot summer




sais — (kwo) size




sait — (kwo) site, website




saje — (kwel) wise, sage

sajitaa — (kwo) wisdom

saja — (kwo) sage

nosaje — (kwel) unwise, ill-advised




sak — (kwo) sack

somnisak — sleeping bag




sakrum — (kwo) sacrum




sakte — (kwel) severe (stern, harsh; very bad or intense)

saktitaa — (kwo) severity, sternness; austerity

Syn.: strikte




sal — (gramatika) «to be about to» (immediate future)

Ela sal plaki. — She was about to cry.




sala — (kwo) hall (large room, meeting room)




salam — 1) (kwo) peace

salam inter jenmin — peace between the peoples

al yao salam, tayari ba gwer — if you want peace, get ready for a war

salam-ney — (kwel) peaceful, pacific; peace loving

2) (exklami) a greeting

Salam, kare amigas! — Hello, dear friends!




salata — (kwo) 1) salad

2) lettuce (also “gardensalata”)




salim — (kwel) safe, sound, intact, unharmed, unhurt

salimtaa — (kwo) soundness, intactness




saliva — (kwo) saliva

saliva(-ney) — (kwel) salivary

salivi — (zwo) salivate

saliving — (kwo) salivation




salpa — (kwo) volley, salvo

fai salpa — fire a volley




salti — (zwo) jump, leap, spring

bay salti, al salti — skippingly, hoppingly

salta — (kwo) jump, leap

en-stan pa salta — spring to one's feet

salting — (kwo) jumping; hopping, skipping

saltikorda — (kwo) skipping rope, jump rope

risalti — (zwo) bounce, rebound, recoil

saltijuk — (kwo) grasshopper




saluti — (zwo) greet, salute

saluta — (kwo) greeting, salute, salutation




salvi — (zwo) save (help to survive; write a file to disk — cf. “spari”), rescue

salvi swa — save oneself

salva — (kwo) salvation, rescue

salver — (kwo) savior




sam — (gramatika)

sam… kom — as... as

Ta lopi sam kway kom yu. — He runs as quickly as you.

sam kom — same as

Sam kom yu, me pri aiskrem. — Same as you, I like ice-cream.




samaji — (zwo) understand, comprehend, realize

hao-samaji-ke — easy to understand, understandable

samajibile — (kwel) understandable, comprehensible

busamajibile — (kwel) inconceivable, incomprehensible, inscrutable

samaja — (kwo) understanding, realization

sinsamaja-ney (sinsamaje) — (kwel) unconscious

samajishil — (kwel) quick-witted, bright, quick in the uptake

missamaji — (zwo) misunderstand

missamaja — (kwo) misunderstanding




saman — (kwo) adobe (unburnt brick dried in the sun)

saman-dom, samanka — (kwo) adobe (house made of adobe brick)




same — (inplas-kwel) the same, that very

Nu shwo same lingwa. — We speak the same language.

pa same taim — at the same time

samem — (inplas-komo) in the same way

Li oli akti samem. — They all act in the same way.

sama (inplas-kwo) the same

Hao nocha! — Sama a yu! — Good night! — The same to you!

Es sama. – It’s all the same.

sam- — (syao) of the same...

samkolor-ney — (kwel) of the same colour

samtaim-ney — (kwel) contemporary (coexistent in time); simultaneous

samtaimjen — (kwo) contemporary

samdumnik — (kwo) like-minded person




samride — (kwel) prosperous, thriving, flourishing

samriditaa — (kwo) prosperity, well-being




sandala — (kwo) sandal (open shoe — cf. “santal”)




sandwich — (kwo) sandwich; bread and butter




sane — (kwel) healthy; wholesome

sanitaa — (kwo) health

nosane — (kwel) unhealthy

sanisi — (zwo) make healthier; sanitate

sanlok — (kwo) health resort




santal — (kwo) sandalwood




sante — (kwel) holy; sacred

santisi — (zwo) sanctify

santisa — (kwo) sanctification

santejen, santa — (kwo) saint

nosantisi — (zwo) desecrate, defile




santush — (kwel) content, contented, gratified, pleased

santushtaa — (kwo) contentment, contentedness




sanyam — (kwel) (self-)restrained, temperate, abstinent

sanyamtaa — (kwo) restraint, reticence, temperance




sapa — (kwo) toad




saplai — (zwo) supply, furnish, provide

saplaisa — (kwo) supply, provision, procurement

saplaiwat — (kwo) supplies




sarsaparila — (kwo) sarsaparilla




sarwe — (kwel) general (of the majority of those involved; prevalent), universal (common to all)

sarwe elekta — general election

sarwe voti-raita — universal suffrage

sarwe nosantushtaa — general discontent




satan — (kwo) Satan, Devil (the chief antagonist of God)

See also: bes, diabla




sate — (kwel) satiate, full, filled to satisfaction

Me he chi un lenge pay e me sta sate. — I have eaten a cold pie and I am full.

chi til sta sate — eat one's fill

fa-sate (satifi) — (zwo) satiate oneself

mah-sate (satisi) — (zwo) satiate, sate

busatibile — (kwel) insatiable

satitaa — (kwo) satiety




satelita — (kwo) satellite




satisfakti — (zwo) satisfy

fulem satisfakti nida de jenley — fully satisfy the needs of mankind

satisfakti-she — (kwel) satisfactory

satisfakta — (kwo) satisfaction




saturi — (zwo) saturate

satura — (kwo) saturation

saturi-ney — (kwel) saturated




Saturna — (kwo) Saturn




saum — (kwo) garlic




sauna — (kwo) sauna




saus — (kwo) sauce (liquid condiment)




savaje — (kwel) wild, savage

savaja — (kwo) savage




savana — (kwo) savanna




savera — (kwo) early morning, daybreak

Me en-stan pa savera. — I get up early in the morning.

Syn.: suryachu, rane sabah




saxofon — (kwo) saxophone




se — (inplas-kwo) this, these (cf. “to”)

Kwo es se? Se es dom. — What is this? This is a house.

Se es dom, e to es auto. — This is a house, and that is a car.

sey — (inplas-kwel) this, these

Sey gaseta es pyu interes-ney kem toy-la. — This newspaper is more interesting than that one.




sedey — (taim-komo) today




sedla — (kwo) saddle




sega — (kwo) saw (tool)

segi — (zwo) saw




segun — (konekti) according to, in accordance with

segun luy worda — according to his words

pikter segun vokasion — painter by vocation

segun to ke me vidi — according to what I see/ judging from what I see

segun me — in my opinion

segun ke — as, in proportion as

segun ke presa fa-syao, volum fa-gran — as pressure diminishes, the volume grows




sekla — (kwo) century




sekondare — (kwel) secondary (not primary, minor, accessory)




sekret — (kwo) secret (hidden knowledge)

sekret-ney — (kwel) secret

sekret-nem — (komo) secretly

sekretnesa — (kwo) secrecy




sekreta — (kwo) secretion (secreted substance)

sekreti — (zwo) secrete

sekreting — (kwo) secretion (process of secreting)




sekretar — (kwo) secretary




seksion — (kwo) section (part, division)




sekta — (kwo) sect

sektayuan — (kwo) sectarian, member of a sect




sektor — (kwo) sector




sekunda — (kwo) second (unit of time)




sekwi — (zwo) follow

pa sekwi-dey — on the next day

(pa) sekwi-ves — next time

sekwi bay okos — follow with one's eyes

sekwi exampla de koywan — follow smb.'s example

sekwa — (kwo) consecution, succession, sequence; consequence

sekwa-ney — (kwel) consecutive, successive

sekwi-she — (kwel) following, next

Treba merki lo sekwi-she. — One should note the following.

sekwitura — (kwo) consequence, sequel; after-effects




sekwita — (kwo) suite, retinue




sela — (kwo) cell (all senses)

sela-ney — (kwel) cellular

ovosela — (kwo) ovum, ovocyte




selekti — (zwo) select, choose, pick out

selekta — (kwo) choice, selection

selektura — (kwo) what is chosen/selected




selfa — (komo) 1) oneself, one's own self

Ta lubi sol swa selfa. — He loves only himself.

Me selfa zwo-te se. — I did it myself.

E walaa Jon selfa. — And here is John in person.

2) itself, taken on its own

sistema selfa es hao — the system itself is good

Yur mata es karimtaa selfa. — Your mother is kindness itself.

pa selfa — on its own, by itself (himself etc.)

3) (syao) self- (unassisted, happening on its own; automatic)

selfa-lumi-she — self-luminous

selfa-zwo-ney — self-made




selri — (kwo) celery




sem — (kwanto) seven (7)

shi-sem — seventeen

semshi — seventy

semsto — seven hundred




semafor — (kwo) traffic light (signalling device)




sembli — (zwo) seem, appear

sembli ke olo go hao — it seems that everything goes well

luna sembli muvi — the moon seems to be moving

sembla — (kwo) semblance, appearance

sembli-she — (kwel) seeming

sembli-shem (semblem) — (komo) seemingly, apparently




semdi — (kwo) Sunday




semena — (kwo) seed; semen

semeni — (zwo) sow; inseminate

semening — (kwo) sowing; insemination

semeni-sha — (kwo) sire, stud, bull

semener — (kwo) seeding-machine




sempre — (taim-komo) always

fo sempre — forever

sempre-ney — (kwel) regular, usual, customary




sena — (kwo) senna




sendi — (zwo) send

sendijen — (kwo) messenger, envoy

sendiwat — (kwo) smth sent

mani-senda — (kwo) remittance

missendi — (zwo) dispatch/send to the wrong address




sens — (kwo) sense (faculty)

pet sens — five senses

ilusion de sens — illusion of the senses

sit-ney sens — the sixth sense

sens-ney — (kwel) sensual (of or pertaining to senses), sensory

sens-ney munda — the sensual world

sens-ney anubav — sensual experience

sensi — (zwo) sense (use senses)

sensa — (kwo) sensation (perception through senses)

sensa de tunga — sensation of pain




sensasion — (kwo) sensation (a state of intense public interest and excitement)




sensu — (kwo) sense (meaning — cf. «sens»)

in chaure (tange) sensu — in a wide (narrow) sense

se bu hev sensu — this doesn’t have sense

in sertene sensu — in a certain sense

sinsensu-ney — (kwel) senseless




sentensia — (kwo) sentence (maxim, dictum, saying — cf. “frasa”)




senti — (zwo) feel (a sensation — cf. “tachi”, “palpi”)

senti swa buhao — feel unwell

senta — (kwo) feeling, sensation; emotion; sense (natural appreciation or ability — cf. "sens")

elay senta versu lu — her feelings towards him

senta de lo jamile — sense of beauty

yuma senta — sense of humour

sentishil — (kwel) sensitive (impressionable, susceptible)

pre-senti — (zwo) have a presentiment

pre-senta — (zwo) presentiment, anticipation




sentra — (kwo) centre

sentrale — (kwel) central

sentralisi — (zwo) centralize

sentralisa — (kwo) centralization




sentrifuga — (kwo) centrifuge

sentrifugi — (zwo) centrifuge




sentu — (kwo) cent

tri euro petshi sentu — three euros fifty cents




senu — (kwo) hay

senupila — (kwo) haystack, hayrick




separi — (zwo) separate

separi fon koywan — part with smb, sepatare from smb

separi-ney — (kwel) separate

separa — (kwo) separation




septemba — (kwo) September (also mes-nin)

pa septemba — in September




sereal — (kwo) cereal




seremonia — (kwo) ceremony




seria — (kwo) series




seriose — (kwel) serious

seriositaa — (kwo) seriousness

Syn.: gambir




serpenta — (kwo) serpent, snake




serpi — (zwo) meander, twist, wind; (fig.) shift (get along by tricky or evasive means)

serpa — (kwo) winding, meander, bend, twist




serte — (kwel) certain (knowing or known for sure); indisputable

me es serte ke ta lugi — I am sure that he is lying

sertem — (komo) certainly, of course

mah-serte — (zwo) assure (remove doubt)

fa-serte — (zwo) become assured

mah swa serte — (zwo) make sure (of); make certain (that)

Sempre mah swa serte ke oli dwar es klefi-ney. — Always make certain that all doors are locked.

sertitaa — (kwo) certainty




sertene — (kwel) certain (fixed, settled; of a specific but unspecified character/degree/quantity)

al sertene kondision — under a certain condition

in sertene sensu — in a certain sense




serva — (kwo) service (occupation, function, work)

servi — (zwo) serve

servi-sha — (kwo) servant

servi-gela — (kwo) maidservant, servant girl

serving — (kwo) act of service

server — (kwo) comp. server




serveta — (kwo) serviette, napkin




serviri — (zwo) serve (bring food)




servis — (kwo) service (set of dishes or utensils)




sesam — (kwo) sesame




sesion — (kwo) session




seson — (kwo) season




seta — (kwo) set (kit, collection)

Syn.: kompleta




sex — (kwo) sex (sexual intercourse)

fai sex — have sex




sexu — (kwo) sex (male or female), gender

sexuale — (kwel) sexual




sfera — (kwo) sphere

haf-sfera — (kwo) hemisphere




shablon — (kwo) template




shada — (kwo) shadow, shade

shadaful — (kwel) shady, umbrageous

shadi, fai shada — (zwo) shade, overshadow, cast a shade




shafi — (zwo) stand up (for), take smb.'s side, intercede (for)

shafer — (kwo) intercessor, defender; protector




shah — (kwo) check (in chess)

shah e mat! — checkmate!




shahmat — (kwo) chess

shahmat-geim — a chess game




shahta — (kwo) shaft (opening)




shai — (zwo) 1) to be hot, burn (about the sun)

surya shai — the sun is hot

sub surya-shaisa — right in the sun, in the full blaze of the sun

2) to sun (expose to the sun's rays, as for warming, drying, or tanning); sunbathe

me shai on playa — I sunbathe on the beach

shaitume — (kwel) sunburnt, sunburned, suntanned, brown, bronzed

shaitumitaa — (kwo) sunburn, tan




shaih — (kwo) sheikh




shakal — (kwo) jackal




shakwi — (zwo) complain

shakwa — (kwo) complaint




shal — (kwo) shawl




shalash — (kwo) shelter of branches




shali — (zwo) play pranks/tricks, be naughty




shalwar — (kwo) shalwar, loose trousers




shamba — (kwo) room, chamber




shambelan — (kwo) chamberlain




shami — (zwo) be ahsamed

mah-shami — (zwo) shame, put to shame

shama — (kwo) shame

shamival — (kwel) shameful, disgraceful

shamishil — (kwel) bashful, shy, easily abashed




shampanya — (kwo) champagne




shampu — (kwo) shampoo




shanji — (zwo) change (make or become smth different)

feng shanji-te direksion — the wind has changed direction

shanja — (kwo) change

mani shanja — money exchange

shanjishil — (kwel) changeable, inconstant




shansa — (kwo) chance (probability; opportunity, possibility)




shao — (inplas-kwanto) little (in quantity), few

Ta hev shao amiga. — He has few friends.

shao-po-shao — little by little

pyu shao — less, smaller amount

zuy shao — least, the smallest amount of

shao-ney — (kwel) little in quantity, scanty

shaotaa — (kwo) scarcity; shortage




shapa — (kwo) cap (head covering — cf. "kapushon"), hat




sharja — (kwo) charge (electric; of a gun etc.)

sharji — (zwo) charge (electrically; to load equipment with material required for its use, as a firearm with powder)

Sharji ba yur banduk! — Charge your weapons!

sharjing — (kwo) charging, loading




sharka — (kwo) shark




sharnir — (kwo) hinge, joint




shatami — (zwo) curse, cuss, swear

shatama — (kwo) curse, swearword

shatam — (exklami) swearword




shauza — (kwo) ladle




shayad — (komo) perhaps, probably




she1 — (gramatika) active participle marker

lubi-she man — a loving man




she2 — (konekti) 1) at, in (refers to smb's abode, country)

me es she me — I am at mine

me zai lai fon she ela — I am coming from hers

sta ba kom she yu! — feel yourself at home!

she dushman — among enemies, in enemy's country

2) in the work / writings of (refers to author)

she Homer — in Homer (Homer's writing)

3) in, with (refers to person or animal)

es abyas she lu — it is a habit with him

instinkta she animal — instinct in animals




shefe — (kwel) main, chief

shefa — (kwo) chief, boss

shefem — (komo) mainly, chiefly

shefurba — (kwo) capital (city)

shefkomander — (kwo) commander in chief




sheiki — (zwo) shake

sheika — (kwo) shake, jolt

sheiking — (kwo) shaking, jolting




shel — (kwo) shell (hard covering)

ovoshel — eggshell

tortuga shel — tortoise shell




sheri — (kwo) sherry




shi — (kwanto) ten (10)

shi-ney — tenth

shifen

un shifen — one tenth (=nol koma un)

shi-un — eleven

shi-dwa — twelve

shi-dwaka — (kwo) dozen

shika — (kwo) a group of ten




shibit — (kwo) dill




shidla — (kwo) awl




shifra — (kwo) cipher, cypher, code




shifti — (zwo) shift, alter, dislocate, displace

shifta — (kwo) shift, dislocation, displacement

See also: smena




shik — (kwo) chic

shik-ney — (kwel) chic




shikar — (kwo) game, bag, prey

shikari — (zwo) hunt

shikara, shikaring — (kwo) hunt, hunting

shikaridoga — (kwo) hunting dog

shikari-sha — (kwo) hunter

shikarnik — (kwo) (inveterate) hunter




shil — (syao) «having inclination or tendency to»

gun to work — gunshil industrious

kusi to bite — kusishil tending to bite

fobi to fear — fobishil timorous




shilda — (kwo) shield




shiling — (kwo) shilling




shin — (kwo) shin (front part of the leg below the knee and above the ankle)




ship — (kwo) ship




shirma — (kwo) screen (divider, protector — cf. "ekran")

lampa-shirma — (kwo) lamp shade, abat-jour




shlang — (kwo) hose (flexible tube)




shma — (syao) «disparagement»

shma-kaval — nag

shma-dom — shack

shma-gunsa — botch, bungle

shma-skribi — scribble, scrawl




shmah — (kwo) disgrace, infamy

shmah e shama! — a sin and a shame, for shame!

shmahisi — (zwo) disgrace, discredit

Syn.: nohonor




shofer — (kwo) (motor-car) driver, chauffeur




shok — (kwo) shock (smth surprising; electric shock; medical emergency)

shoki — (zwo) shock




shop — (kwo) store, shop

Syn.: dukan




shorta — (kwo) shorts




shosee — (kwo) highway, high road




shsh! — (exklami) Hush! Sh!




shu — (kwo) shoe

shuer — (kwo) shoemaker




shuan — (kwo) bar, bolt, hasp

shuani — (zwo) bar, bolt

deshuani, defai shuan — (zwo) unbar, unbolt




shuin — (kwo) mercury




shuki — (zwo) search, seek, look for

shuka, shuking — (kwo) search

shuki-sha — (kwo) seeker, searcher (person)

shuker — (kwo) finder (device)

beshuki — (zwo) search, ransack

beshuki krimenjen — search the criminal

shukidoga — (kwo) sleuth-hound




shukran — (kwo) thanks, thank you

shukran a boh — thanks god

Syn.: danke




shulan — (kwo) sloth (animal)




shulin — (kwo) forest, woods

shulin-ki — (kwo) grove, copse




shum — (kwo) noise

shum-ney — (kwel) noisy

shumi — (zwo) make a noise; be noisy

sinshum-ney — (kwel) noiseless

sinshum-nem — (kwel) noiselessly




shumay — (kwo) panic grass




shuti — (zwo) shoot, fire

shuti bay banduk (kanon) — fire a rifle (cannon)

shuti a koysa — shoot at smth

ek-shuti — (zwo) fire a shot

shuti-kili — (zwo) shoot, kill by shooting

shuta — (kwo) shot

shuting — (kwo) shooting, firing

shuter — (kwo) shooter

shutiguan — (kwo) shooting gallery

shuti-maidan — (kwo) firing range




shwabra — (kwo) mop, swab




shwai — (zwo) throw (esp. with great force or abruptly), hurl, fling

rasshwai — (zwo) scatter, throw about




shwo — (zwo) say, speak

si mog shwo tak — so to speak

otrem shwo-yen — to put it differently

shwoing — (kwo) speaking; grammar mood

shwosa — (kwo) speech (see also “bashan”)

shwo-ke — (kwel) speech, related to speaking

shwotura — (kwo) saying; proverb

shwoer — (kwo) speaker

lautshwoka, shwoka — (kwo) loudspeaker

shwonik — (kwo) talker




shwofu — (kwo) persuade, admonish




si — 1) (konekti) if

Si pluvi dan me resti pa dom. — If it rains then I rest at home.

Kwo si ta bu lai? — What if he doesn’t come?

2) (gramatika) a likening particle (“sort of, similar to, something like, a kind of, as if, seemingly”)

Ta bildi un dom-si aus brancha. — He built a kind of house using branches.

Kwo lopi tra shamba? - Un maus-si. — What is running across the room? - A mouse or something.

rude-si — reddish

shi-si — about ten




sidi — (zwo) sit

en-sidi — (zwo) sit down

sidika — (kwo) seat (object for sitting or connected with sitting)




sidra — (kwo) cider




siferblat — (kwo) dial (a graduated, circular scale over which a needle moves to show a measurement); (clock) face




sifra — (kwo) cipher (a numeric character), digit, figure

arabi sifra — Arabic numerals

sifra(-ney) — (kwel) digital (numerical)




sifta — (kwo) sieve (device)

sifti — (zwo) sieve, sift

sifting — (kwo) sieve, sift, screening




sigara — (kwo) cigar




sigareta — (kwo) cigarette

sigaretadan — (zwo) cigarette-case




sigla — (kwo) seal (signet, its impression, etc. — cf. “fok”)

sigli — (zwo) seal




signa — (kwo) sign; token

pa signa de koysa — as a token/sign of smth

signi — (zwo) do/give a sign (cf. “signati”)

signika — (kwo) insignia; badge, pin




signal — (kwo) signal

signali — (zwo) signal, give a signal




signati — (zwo) sign (write one’s signature)

signati-ney e sigli-ney — signed and sealed

signatura — (kwo) signature




signifi — (zwo) signify, mean, stand for

signifa — (kwo) meaning

signifaful — (kwel) significant (carrying meaning; having a covert or hidden meaning)

Syn.: maini




sigure — (kwel) confident or connected with confidence, sure, secure and certain, safe, reliable, dependable

sigure om swa selfa, swa-sigure — sure of oneself, self-confident

sigure om sukses — confident of success

sigure plasa — safe place

sigure vos — confident / steady voice

sigure metoda — sure method

sigure handa — sure hand

fo sta sigure — just in case

sigurem — (komo) confidently, with confidence

siguritaa — (kwo) confidence, assurance; reliability

swa-siguritaa — self-reliance

sigurisi — (zwo) ensure, assure, secure; insure

sigurisi swa — secure oneself, insure oneself

sigurisa — (kwo) guaranteeing, securing, ensuring; insurance




sikada — (kwo) cicada




sikin — (kwo) knife

sikin do kalam — (kwo) penknife




sikla — (kwo) cycle




sikom — (unisi) since, because, as, considering that (at the beginning of a clause)

Me bu yao-te shwo to a yu, bat sikom yu selfa begin sey kunshwosa, yu mus jan, ke yu hi es nofelise. — I didn’t want to tell it to you, but since you yourself began this conversation, you must know that it’s you who is unhappy.




silaba — (kwo) syllable




silda — (kwo) herring




silensi — (zwo) be/keep silent; keep silence

silensa — (kwo) silence

silensa-ney (silense) — (kwel) silent

silensishil — (kwel) taciturn, silent, reserved




silinda — (kwo) cylinder




silka — (kwo) silk




silya — (kwo) eyelash; (biol.) cilium, cilia

elay longe silya bin pinti-ney — her long eyelashes were painted




sima — (kwo) top, apex, summit




simbol — (kwo) symbol

simbolike — (kwel) symbolic

simboli — (zwo) symbolize




simile — (kwel) similar, alike

jen-simile — resembling a human being

similitaa — (kwo) likeness, resemblance, similarity, similitude

simili — (zwo) be similar; resemble

lu simili suy mata — he resembles his mother

similisi — (zwo) liken

nosimile — (kwel) dissimilar, unlike




simple — (kwel) simple

simplitaa — (kwo) simplicity

simplisi — (zwo) simplify (tr.)

simplisa — (kwo) simplification

simplem (sim) — (komo) simply; just

Me sim bu jan. — I just don't know.




simti — (zwo) shrink, shrivel, cower




simuli — (zwo) feign; simulate

simula — (kwo) simulation

simuli-sha — (kwo) simulator (person); malingerer

simuler — (kwo) simulator (device)




sin — (konekti) without

(syao) «-less»

sinsensu-ney — (kwel) senseless

singola-ney — (kwel) aimless




sina — (kwo) breast; bosom




sinap — (kwo) mustard




single — (kwel) single (consisting of one part/aspect; undivided; individual and distinct — cf. “sole”)

single tota — a single whole

single shamba — a single room

single forma, singlika — (kwo) singular (gram.)

singla — (kwo) single




sinian — (zwo) miss (to feel the absence of someone or something, sometimes with regret), yearn, pine

Me sinian om yu. — I miss you.

Ta sinian om dom. — He is homesick.




sinior — (kwo) sir, gentleman (a polite form of addressing or naming a male)

See also: madam




sinjen-ney — (kwo) empty of people, lonely, desolate




sinki — (zwo) sink (submerge; subside; go down slowly)

sinki fas in kushen — bury one's face in the pillow

sinka — (kwo) sinking, submersion, submergence




sinnamba-ney — (kwel) innumerable

(Origin: sin+namba+ney)




sinonim — (kwo) synonym




sinsere — (kwel) sincere (not feigned, genuine)

sinseritaa — (kwo) sincerity

nosinsere — (kwel) insincere, hypocritical




sintes — (kwo) synthesis




sinua — (kwo) convolution, sinuosity

brein-sinua — brain convolution(s)




sinus — (kwo) sine (math.)




sipi — (zwo) pour (about granular solid)




siringa — (kwo) syringe




sirke — (komo) approximately, about, around

dar he ye sirke dwashi jen — there were about 20 people

sirke mil dolar — around 1000 dollars




sirkuita — (kwo) (electric) circuit

kurte sirkuita — short circuit




sirkula — (kwo) circle (also group of persons)

sirkula-ney (sirkule) — (kwel) circular

sirkulalinia — (kwo) circumference




sirkuli — (zwo) circulate

sirkuling — (kwo) circulation (also “sirkulasion”)




sirkum — (konekti-komo) around

sirkum dom — around the house

kan sirkum — to look around

sirkumi — (zwo) encircle, surround

sirkuma — (kwo) encirclement

sirkumlok, lo sirkum — (kwo) surroundings




sirkus — (kwo) circus




sirop — (kwo) syrup




sisma — (kwo) earthquake (also “ardatrema”)




sista — (kwo) sister




sistason — (kwo) nephew (sister's son)

(Origin: sista+son)




sistema — (kwo) system




sit — (kwanto) six (6)

sitshi — sixty

sitsto — six hundred




sitata — (kwo) quotation, citation

sitati — (zwo) cite, quote




sitdi — (kwo) Saturday




siti — (kwo) city (most ancient part of a town; the financial and commercial center; municipality — cf. “urba”)




sitisen — (kwo) citizen (person that is a legally recognized as a member of a state)

Syn.: statayuan




situasion — (kwo) situation

situasion-ney — (kwel) situational




sivile — (kwel) civil (pertaining to a citizen and his rights; not military or ecclesiastical), civic, civilian

sivila — (kwo) civilian




sivilisi — (zwo) civilize

sivilisa — (kwo) civilization




skala — (kwo) scale (a system of ordered marks at fixed intervals; calibrated line; the ratio of depicted distance to actual distance; size, scope; — cf. "kaskasa", "pondidan")




skalpel — (kwo) scalpel




skandal — (kwo) scandal

skandal-ney — (kwel) scandalous




skandi — (zwo) chant (shout rhythmically); scan (verse)




skara — (kwo) scar, cicatrice

skari — (zwo) scar; cicatrize




skarfa — (kwo) scarf (a long garment worn around the neck)




skay — (kwo) sky (cf. "swarga")




skelet — (kwo) skeleton (anat.)




skema — (kwo) scheme (outline of system, not project)

skema-ney — (kwel) schematic

skema-nem — (komo) schematically




skena — (kwo) scene; stage (theater)




sketa — (kwo) skates, skate

sketi — (zwo) skate

sketing — (kwo) skating




ski — (kwo) ski

fai ski — (zwo) ski

skiing — (kwo) skiing

skier — (kwo) skier




skoba — (kwo) cramp, staple; bracket, parentheses

kwadra-skoba — (kwo) square brackets ("[]")

angula-skoba — (kwo) angle brackets ("<>")




skola — (kwo) school

skolakitaba — (kwo) schoolbook




skorpion — (kwo) scorpion




skotish — (kwel, kwo) Scottish; Scotsman




Skotland — (kwo) Scotland




skrapi — (zwo) scratch, scrape

skrapi swa — scratch oneself

skrapitura — (kwo) scratch (result of scratching)

skraping — (kwo) scratching

See also: raspi




skribi — (zwo) write

skriba, skribing — (kwo) writing

skribitura — (kwo) inscription; writing (smth written)

skribitip — (kwo) handwriting

skriber — (kwo) writer




skriki — (zwo) creak




skrupulose — (kwel) scrupulous, meticulous




skulpti — (zwo) sculpt, sculpture, chisel, carve

skulptura — (kwo) sculpture (result of sculpting)




skuma — (kwo) foam, spume; scum; froth; lather

skuma-onda, skumika — (kwo) breaker (wave)

skumi — (zwo) foam; froth




skupa — (kwo) scoop, dipper




skusi — (zwo) excuse (forgive; make allowance for; serve as justification for)

skusa — (kwo) excuse

pregi skusa — apologize

Syn.: pardoni

See also: bahani




skwili — (zwo) squeal, screech, scream, shrill




slama — (kwo) straw




slapi — (zwo) slap, flap, flop, plump

slapi-lwo — fall with a plop, plop down

slap! — (exklami) flop! plop!




slika — (kwo) snail




slim — (kwel) slender, slim




slipa — (kwo) slipper

slipas — slippers




sliva — (kwo) plum

slivabaum — (kwo) plum tree




sloy — (kwo) layer, stratum

sloy-ney — (kwel) stratified, laminar, flaky

sloy-ney panpasta — puff pastry

sloy-nem — (komo) in layers

fa-sloy — (zwo) stratify

mah-sloy — (zwo) layer




slu — (zwo) listen, strain one's ears to hear; auscultate; eavesdrop

sluka — (kwo) eavesdropping device




smaili — (zwo) smile

smaila — (kwo) smile




smaragda — (kwo) emerald

smaragda-ney — (kwel) emerald




smena — (kwo) shift (group of workers or working period)




smiri — (kwo) smear, anoint, daub, spread (a substance by rubbing)




smola — (kwo) resin (plant secretion)

smola-ney — (kwel) resinous




smuk — (kwo) grass snake

akwa-smuk — (kwo) water snake




smuli — (zwo) smoulder (burn slowly without flame)

smuli-she gual — smouldering coals




snega — (kwo) snow

snegi — (zwo) snow

sneging — (kwo) snowing

snegalwosa — (kwo) snowfall

snega-feng — (kwo) snowstorm

sneginka — (kwo) snowflake




snifi — (zwo) smell at, snuff, sniff at




snova — (komo) again, anew




snufi — (zwo) snuffle, breathe heavily and noisily through the nose




soba — (kwo) buckwheat

soba-kasha — (kwo) buckwheat porridge




sobre — (konekti-komo) above, over

sobre urba — over the town

es sobre — it is above

vidi fon sobre — to see from above

mil metra sobre marnivel — one thousand meters above sea level

sobreolo — (komo) especially

sobre-ney — (kwel) superjacent; superior

sobrenesa — (kwel) superiority

sobreyuan — (kwo) superior (a person of higher rank)

sobreshefa — (kwo) supreme chief




sobredurti — (zwo) outwit, overreach, circumvent

(Origin: sobre+durti)




sobrelodi — (zwo) overload, overburden

sobreloda — (kwo) overload

(Origin: sobre+lodi)




sobrepasi — (zwo) outrun, outstrip, outdistance, overtake

ateni e sobrepasi — catch up and overtake




sobreplei — (zwo) outplay




soda — (kwo) soda




sok — (kwo) sock (covering for the foot)

un para sok — a pair of socks




sol — (komo) only

sol manya — only tomorrow

bu sol... bat yoshi... — not only... but also...




soldata — (kwo) soldier




soldi — (zwo) solder (unite or repair parts with solder)

soldika — (kwo) solder (fusible alloy)




sole — (kwel) sole, only; alone, solitary, lonely

pa sole — alone, on one's own

solitaa — (kwo) solitude, loneliness

solem — (komo) alone; solely




solemne — (kwel) solemn




solidare — (kwel) solidary

solidaritaa — (kwo) solidarity




solide — (kwel) solid (reliable, upstanding and dependable; substantial — cf. “twerde”)

Syn.: gaurawe




solo — (kwo) solo

fai solo — (zwo) solo




solstis — (kwo) solstice




solta — (kwo) salt

solti — (zwo) salt

solta-ney (solte) — (kwel) saline

nosolte akwa — sweet water

solti-ney (solten) — (kwel) salted

soltish — (kwel) saltish

soltadan — (kwo) saltcellar; salt shaker




solvi — (zwo) dissolve, melt (cf. “resolvi”)

solvi solta in akwa — dissolve salt in water

solving — (kwo) dissolving, dissolution

solvitura — (kwo) solution (liquid mixture)

solver — (kwo) dissolvent, solvent




somni — (zwo) sleep

treba go somni — one should go sleep

somna — (kwo) sleep

somnaful — (kwel) sleepy

somnisi — (zwo) put to sleep

somniser — (kwo) soporific, sleeping draught




son — (kwo) son




sonda — (kwo) sonde, probe, sounder

sondi — (zwo) probe, sonder, sound




soneta — (kwo) sonnet




sonji — (zwo) dream (to see imaginary events in one’s mind while sleeping — cf. “drimi”)

Pa sey nocha me he sonji un yarke sonja.— I dreamed a vivid dream this night.

sonja — (kwo) dream (imaginary events while sleeping)

dussonja — (kwo) nightmare




sonore — (kwel) sonorous, ringing, resonant




soroka — (kwo) magpie




sorpi — (zwo) sup, sip




sorta — (kwo) sort, kind

ol-sorta-ney — all kinds of, sundry




sosiale — (kwel) social (relating to society)




sosietaa — (kwo) society




sosis — (kwo) sausage

sosiskin — (kwo) frankfurter, small sausage




sospiri — (zwo) sigh

sospira — (kwo) sigh




sovi — (zwo) shove, poke




sovrin — (kwo) sovereign (coin)




soya — (kwo) soya

soya saus — (kwo) soy sauce

soya bona — (kwo) soya bean(s)




spaida — (kwo) spider

spaidaweba — (kwo) cobweb, spiderweb




spam — (kwo) spam

spami — (zwo) spam




spari — (zwo) spare (be frugal), save, economize

nospari — (zwo) squander, dissipate

sparishil — (kwel) frugal, thrifty, economical

spara, sparing — (kwo) economy (frugal use), saving

sparitura — (kwo) savings

nospara-ney (nospare) — (kwel) unthrifty, improvident




spas — (kwo) space (also whitespace)

spas-ney — (kwel) spacial

spas-taim-ney — (kwel) spatiotemporal, space-time




spelta — (kwo) spelt (a kind of wheat)




spendi — (zwo) spend, expend

spenda — (kwo) expenditure, expense

pa swa-ney spenda — at one's own expense




spesia — (kwo) species (biol.)




spesiale — (kwel) special

spesialem — (komo) specially

spesialitaa — (kwo) speciality

spesialista — (kwo) specialist




spesifi — (zwo) specify, designate particularly

spesifa — (kwo) specification

spesifike — (kwel) specific

spesifikitaa — (kwo) specificity




spika — (kwo) thorn, spine, prickle

spikatel — (kwo) barbed wire

spikabush — (kwo) thorn bush




spila — (kwo) pin

spili — (zwo) pin




spin — (zwo) spin (make thread)

spintura — (kwo) yarn

spintul — (kwo) spinning wheel




spina — (kwo) spine, backbone




spinata — (kwo) spinach




spion — (kwo) spy

spioni — (zwo) spy




spiral — (kwo) spiral




spiri — (zwo) breathe

spiri gro — pant

spiri mushkilem — gasp

ausspiri — (zwo) exhale, breathe out

inuspiri — (zwo) inhale , breathe in

spira — (kwo) breath

rifai spira — catch one's breath

spira-falta — (kwo) shortness of breath, short wind




spiritu — (kwo) spirit (non-material essence)

spirituale — (kwel) spiritual

spiritualitaa — (kwo) spirituality




splin — (kwo) spleen (melancholy, depression — cf. “limpa”)

Syn.: melankolia




splinta — (kwo) splinter




sponja — (kwo) sponge

sponja-biskwit — sponge cake

sponji — (zwo) sponge




spontane — (kwel) spontaneous




sporta — (kwo) sport (physical activity, often competitive)

zun sporta — go in for sport

hima sportas — winter sports

sporta-ney (sporte) — (kwel) sport, sports




spota — (kwo) blot, stain, spot

spoti — (zwo) spot, stain, maculate

spoti-ney (spoten) — (kwel) spotty, spotted

suryaspota — (kwo) sunspot




sprata — (kwo) sprat




sprinki — (zwo) sprinkle, scatter in drops or particles




spuki — (zwo) spit (evacuate saliva)

spuka — (kwo) spit, spittle




srok — (kwo) term (fixed space of time, time limit)




sta — (sta) be in a certain state; be doing, feel, stand (about the matters)

Komo yu sta? — How are you?

Komo may kitaba sta? — How is my book doing?

Lu sta bu tro hao. — He feels not too good.

stasa — (kwo) state (condition)

hao-stasa-ney — in a good condition




staba — (kwo) staff, headquarters




stabile — (kwel) stable

stabilitaa — (kwel) stability

stabilisi — (zwo) stabilize, make stable

stabilisa — (kwo) stabilization




stadia — (kwo) stage, phase




staka — (kwo) stake (piece of wood pointed at one end)

staka-barana, stakatot — (kwo) palisade, paling




stakato — (kwo) staccato




stal — (kwo) steel

buruji-stal — rustless steel, stainless steel




stampa — (kwo) stamp (device; official mark; impression)

fingastampa — (kwo) fingerprints

stampi — (zwo) stamp, imprint on the surface (cf. "tompi")




stan — (zwo) stand

stankolar — stand-up collar

en-stan — (zwo) stand up, rise, get up

stansa — (kwo) standing; stand (position), stance; point (stance taken by a hunting dog)

stanka — (kwo) stand (device to hold smth), strut, prop, stay

stanshil — (kwel) stable (maintaining equilibrium)

mah-stan — (zwo) erect, stand (to cause to stand, place upright)




standa — (kwo) stand (device for displaying information; section of an exhibition)




standarda — (kwo) standard

standarda-ney (standarde) — (kwel) standard




stanga — (kwo) pole (a long slender piece of wood etc.), rod

flagastanga — (kwo) flagstaff, flagpole




stanum — (kwo) tin (metal)




stara — (kwo) star

stara-figura — constellation

stara-ney — (kwel) stellar

staraful — (kwel) starry, starlit

starakin — (kwo) asterisk




starti — (zwo) start (begin; set into operation)

starta — (kwo) start

starter — (kwo) starter




stasion — (kwo) station

ferdao-stasion — (kwo) railway station




stata — (kwo) state (polity; a political division of a federation)

Unisi-ney Statas de Amerika (USA) — the United States of America

stata-ney (state) — (kwel) state (attr.), national

statagana — national anthem




statua — (kwo) statue




stavi — (zwo) set, station, set up, put up; mount, install

stavi tenta — set up a tent

stavi limita — set a limit

stavi parus — set / make sail

destavi — (zwo) demount, uninstall

destavi parus — furl / take in sails




stay — (kwel, komo) steady, steadily; constant, regular, standing, permanent, persistent

stay gwinsa — stable/regular income

stay klienta — regular customer

Syn.: stabile




stem — (kwo) stem, stalk (main axis of a plant)




step — (kwo) steppe




stepi — (zwo) step (move the foot in walking), pace, tread

stepa — (kwo) step (also measure, action)

fai stepa fo/kontra koysa — take steps for/against smth

rasstepi — (zwo) give way, part, step aside




stif — (syao) "step"

stif-mata — stepmother

stif-patra — stepfather




stik — (kwo) stick (piece of wood; smth resembling a stick)

gro-stik — (kwo) cudgel, bludgeon, club




stil — (kwo) style




stimula — (kwo) stimulus, incentive

stimuli — (zwo) stimulate

stimuling — (kwo) stimulation, encouragement




stiri — (zwo) stretch (lengthen by pulling or when pulled (“tiri” – pull))

stiri-ney (stiren) pulova — stretched sweater

stiri swa — stretch oneself

See also: extendi




sto — (kwanto) hundred (100)

stofen

sem stofen — seven hundredths

stofen, stofenka — (kwo) hundredth part

stoka — (kwo) a group of hundred




stolba — (kwo) post, pillar, column, pole

fa-stolba — (zwo) be dumbfounded

fa-stolba-ney — (kwel) dumbfounded, stupefied, stumped




stomak — (kwo) stomach (organ — cf. “duza”)

al vakue stomak — on an empty stomach




ston — (kwo) stone

ston(-ney) — (kwel) stone, stony

stonifi — (zwo) turn to stone; petrify

stonifa — (kwo) petrifaction




stopi — (zwo) stop; cease

stopi shwo! — stop talking!

sin stopi — without stopping, nonstop

stopi in hotel — stop at the inn

stopa — (kwo) stop (act of stopping), stopping; cessation, cease

gunstopa — (kwo) strike (a work stoppage)

stoper — (kwo) stopper

stopika — (kwo) stop (halting place)

stop — (exklami) stop




storma — (kwo) storm

snegastorma — (kwo) snowstorm; blizzard




storna — (kwo) starling




stotri — (zwo) stammer, stutter

stotra — (kwo) stammer(ing), stutter(ing)




strane — (kwel) strange, odd, queer

stranem — (komo) strangely

stranitaa — (kwo) strangeness




strategia — (kwo) strategy

strategike — (kwel) strategic

strategikem — (komo) strategically




stres — (kwo) stress (strain, tension — cf. “aksenta”)




strikte — (kwel) strict (exact; rigorous)

striktenesa — (kwo) strictness




stripa — (kwo) stripe

stripi — (zwo) stripe

stripa-ney (stripe) — (kwel) striped, stripy




strom — (kwo) stream, torrent, flow

stromi — (zwo) stream, run, pour, flow

en-stromi — (zwo) gush, spout

elektre strom, el-strom — (kwo) electric current




struktura — (kwo) structure

struktura-ney (strukture) — (kwo) structural

strukturisi — (zwo) structure (give arrangement to)

strukturisa — (kwo) structurization




studenta — (kwo) student




studi — (zwo) study

studa — (kwo) study




studio — (kwo) studio




stuka — (kwo) stucco

stuki — (zwo) stucco, plaster




stula — (kwo) chair

brachastula — (kwo) armchair




stumbli — (zwo) stumble (trip)




stupide — (kwel) stupid, silly, foolish, idiotic

stupida — (kwo) fool

stupiditaa — (kwo) stupidity, foolishness, silliness

Syn.: pumbe




stupor — (kwo) stupor, torpor, numbness

fai stupor — be in stupor; become numb, stiffen

defai stupor — awake from stupor




sturma — (kwo) assault, storm, onslaught

sturmi — (zwo) assault, storm




suan — (kwel) sour; acid

suannesa — (kwo) sourness; acidity

suantaa — (kwo) acid

suanmilka — (kwo) sour milk

fa-suan — (zwo) turn/go sour

mah-suan — (zwo) sour, make sour

suanish — (kwel) sourish




sub — (konekti-komo) under, below

sub tabla — under the table

fon sub tabla — from under the table

fon sub — from below

sub nuy kontrola — under our control

sub-ney — (kwel) subjacent; subordinate, inferior (of lower rank)

subyuan — (kwo) subordinate

subjen — (kwo) subject (a person ruled over)




subi — (zwo) undergo




submarina — (kwo) submarine boat




subordini — (zwo) subordinate or be subordinate




substansa — (kwo) substance (matter, material — cf. "esensia")

grey substansa — gray substance

organike substansa — organic substance




substansia — (kwo) substance (philosophy)




substituta — (kwo) substitute

substituti — (zwo) substitute

substituting — (kwo) substitution




subtitla — (kwo) subtitles, captions




subtragi — (zwo) subtract

Sem subtragi dwa es pet. — If you subtract 2 from 7, the answer is 5.

subtraga — (kwo) subtraction




suburba — (kwo) suburb




subyekta — (kwo) subject (gram., log., philos.)

Cf. "tema", "subjen"




suda — (kwo) south

suda(-ney) — (kwel) south, southern

sude feng — south wind

suden — (konekti-komo) to the south, south of

urba es suden — the town is to the south

suden urba ye shulin — forest is south of the town




sudak — (kwo) pike-perch




sudor — (kwo) sweat, perspiration

sudor-ney — (kwel) sweaty

sudori — (zwo) perspire, sweat

sudorisi — (zwo) produce sweating

sudoriser — (kwo) sudorific




sufi — (zwo) suffice

se sufi — it’s sufficient

sufi-she — (kwel) sufficing, sufficient

sufi-shem (sufem) — (komo) sufficiently, enough

busufi-she — (kwel) insufficient

sufa — (kwo) sufficiency

sufa-ney (sufe) — (kwel) sufficient

suf — (syao) indicates sufficiency of action

sufchi — eat one's fill

sufsomni — have a good sleep, have one's sleep out

sufplei — play to one's heart's content

sufpromeni — have had a walk long enough

suflopi — have one's fill of running




sufliri — (zwo) prompt (theater and television)




sufri — (zwo) suffer (feel pain or distress; sustain loss, injury, harm, or punishment — cf. "subi", "toleri")

sufra — (kwo) suffering




sugesti — (zwo) suggest (put an idea etc. into a person's mind — cf. "proposi")

sugesta — (kwo) suggestion (psychol.)




suhbranchika — (kwo) brushwood, dry twigs

(Origin: suhe+brancha)




suhe — (kwel) dry

suhe-si rida — a dry laugh

suhitaa — (kwo) dryness; drought

suhi — (zwo) dry

suhing — (kwo) drying

mah-suhe — (zwo) make dry

fa-suhe — (zwo) become dry

suher — (kwo) dryer




suki — (zwo) suck

suking — (kwo) sucking

suker — (kwo) sucker

suki-sha — (kwo) sucker (a person or animal)




sukra — (kwo) sugar

sukradan — (kwo) sugar-bowl




sukses — (kwo) success

suksesi (fai sukses) — (zwo) succeed

sukses-ney — (kwel) successful

sukses-nem — (komo) successfully




sulam — (kwo) stairs; staircase; ladder

portisulam — (kwo) stepladder

kordasulam — (kwo) rope ladder

ship-sulam — (kwo) ship's ladder

sulam-plana — (kwo) landing (of a staircase)




sulfa — (kwo) sulfur




suli — (zwo) bode, forebode, promise

Syn.: presigni, wadi




suluki — (zwo) behave

suluka — (kwo) behavior




suma — (kwo) sum

in suma — in sum

sumi — (zwo) sum up

suming — (kwo) summing up, summation (process)

sumare — (kwel) total, aggregate




sumpa — (kwo) bog, morass, swamp, marsh




sun — (komo) soon

Til sun! — See you soon!

sun-ney — (kwel) near, coming soon




sundi — (zwo) convey, deliver (bring or transport to the proper place or recipient; distribute)

sunda — (kwo) delivery




sunduk — (kwo) (big) chest (strong box)




sungi — (zwo) see off

sunga — (kwo) send-off, seeing-off




suola — (kwo) sole (underside of a shoe or foot)




suomen — (kwel, kwo) Finnish; Finn; Finnish language




Suomi — Finland (also "Finland")




suon — (kwo) sound

fai nul suon — utter no sound

suoni — (zwo) sound, ring

suoning — (kwo) sounding




sup — (kwo) soup




super — (kwel, komo, exklami, syao) super

superjen — superman

superstara — superstar

superka — (kwo) something cool (super, excellent, first-rate)




superflue — (kwel) superfluous




superi — (zwo) surpass, exceed; overcome




supermarket, market — (kwo) supermarket




suplementa — (kwo) supplement, appendix




suporti — (zwo) support

suporta — (kwo) supporting, support

suporter — (kwo) supporter




suposi — (zwo) suppose, assume

suposa — (kwo) supposition




surfas — (kwo) surface




surfi — (zwo) surf

surfing — (kwo) surfing




surma — (kwo) antimony, stibium




surprisa — (kwo) surprise

pa koywan-ney surprisa – to smb's surprise

surprisi — (zwo) surprise; be surprised

surprisa-ney (surprise) — (kwel) surprising




sursa — (kwo) source




surya — (kwo) sun

suryaflor — (kwo) sunflower

suryaspota — (kwo) sunspot

suryadarba — (kwo) sunstroke

suryavati — (zwo) sun




suryachu — (kwo) sunrise




suryalwo — (kwo) sunset, sundown




suskribi — (zwo) subscribe (contract to receive; promise to contribute)

suskriba — (zwo) subscription




suspekti — (zwo) suspect

suspektishil — (kwel) suspicious (distrustful)

suspekta — (kwo) suspicion

suspekta-ney (suspekte) — (kwel) suspect, suspicious (arousing suspicion, dubious)

suspekta-nem (suspektem) — (komo) suspiciously




susu — (zwo) rustle

sususa — (kwo) rustle, rustling




suti — (zwo) sew, suture

suting — (kwo) sewing

suti-igla — (kwo) sewing needle

suter — (kwo) sewer, tailor

sutura — (kwo) seam; suture




suy — (inplas-kwel) his, her, its

Kada jen lubi suy kinda. — Everyone loves his/her child.




svenska — (kwel, kwo) Swedish (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Swede; the Swedish language




swa — (gramatika) myself, yourself etc. (common reflexive pronoun for all persons and numbers)

Ela woshi swa. — She washes herself.

Ta lubi sol swa selfa. — He loves only himself.

Nu shwo a swa. — We say to ourselves.

(syao) self- (of oneself — сf. «selfa»)

swa-luba — self-love

swa-kontrola — self-control




swaagat — (exklami) welcome

swaagati — (zwo) welcome




swarga — (kwo) heaven (cf. "skay")

swargalok — (kwo) paradise




swasti — (exklami) Good luck! May fortune favour you! Everything good to you!




swatberi — (kwo) blackberry, bramble




swate — (kwel) black

swatebrova-ney — dark-browed




swichi — (zwo) switch (set a switch into another position)

swichi-on — switch on

swichi-of — switch off

swiching — (kwo) switching

swicher — (kwo) switch (device)




swimi — (zwo) swim

swiming — (kwo) swimming

swimer — (kwo) swimmer




swina — (kwo) pig, swine

gin-swina (swinina) — (kwo) sow, female pig

man-swina (swino) — (kwo) boar, male pig

yunswina — (kwo) piglet, young pig

swinamasu — (kwo) pork




swingi — (zwo) swing (move backward and forward; brandish; ride a swing)

swinging — (kwo) swinging

swingika — (kwo) swing (hanging seat)




swipa — (kwo) lash, scourge, whip

swipi — (zwo) lash, scourge, whip




syao — (kwel) small, little (not large or big)

syaodela — (kwo) trifle (thing of little importance, also "nomuhimka")




syen — (kwo) string (esp. of a musical instrument or of a bow — cf. “korda”)

syentul — (kwo) stringed instrument

arkusyen — (kwo) bow string




ta — (inplas-kwo) he, she, it; him, her (common for animate — cf. "it")

Es may kota, ta nami Vladimir. — This is my cat, its name is Vladimir.




tabahi — (zwo) perish




tabak — (kwo) tobacco

tabakdan — (kwo) tobacco pouch




tabela — (kwo) table (orderly arrangement of data)




tabla — (kwo) table (item of furniture)

fantabla — (kwo) dinner table

lignatabla — (kwo) wooden table

skribitabla — (kwo) writing-table




tableta — (kwo) tablet, pill




tabu — (kwo) taboo

tabui, fai tabu — (zwo) taboo

tabu-ney — (kwel) taboo, forbidden




tabula — (kwo) board (flat surface on which a game is played; flat surface used for writing or posting; name board); (name) tablet




tabut — (kwo) coffin

tabut-gari — (kwo) hearse, bier




tachi — (zwo) touch (also fig.)

tacha — (kwo) touch




tafeta — (kwo) taffeta




taim — (kwo) time

hev taim fo zwo koysa — to have time to do smth

es taim fo go a dom — it’s time to go home

es gro-taim fo samaji... — it’s high time to understand...

afte shao taim — after little time, shortly

pa hao taim — in time; at the right/proper time

nau-taim, wek-taim e lai-taim — the present tense, past tense and future tense

fon taim a taim — from time to time

taimike — (kwel) temporary

taimikem — (komo) temporarily

taim-ney — (kwel) temporal (of or relating to time)




taip — (kwo) type, typeface, font

grose taip — thick/bold type




taipi — (zwo) type, typewrite

taiping — (kwo) typing




tak — (komo) so, in this way

Me opini tak. — I think so. Tak, bu kontra-nem. — So, not otherwise. Hay bi tak! — So be it!

tak ke — so that




tal — (inplas-kwel) such (like this, that etc.)

Me bu pri tal joka. — I don't like such jokes.

Jiva es tal hi. — Such is life.

talgrad — to such an extent




talam — (kwo) tray




talenta — (kwo) 1) talent (marked ability or skill); 1) talent (unit)

talenta-ney (talente), talentaful — (kwel) talented, gifted




talia — (kwo) waist




talim — (kwo) education

minista de talim — minister of education

talimi — (zwo) teach

talimi kindas — teach children

talimi musika a kindas — teach music to children

talimer — (kwo) teacher

taliming — (kwo) teaching

talim-ney — (kwel) educated

sintalim-ney — (kwel) uneducated, ignorant




talisman — (kwo) talisman, amulet




talka — (kwo) talc




tamani — (zwo) wish (bid, express wishes for — cf. “yao”)

me tamani a yu fortuna — I wish you good luck

tamana — (kwo) wish(es)

Zuy hao tamana! — Best wishes!




tambur — (kwo) drum (percussive musical instrument)

tamburi (fai/baji tambur) — (zwo) drum

tamburi bay finga on tabla — drum one’s fingers on the table




tampon — (kwo) tampon




tamra — (kwo) date (sweet fruit)

tamrapalma — (kwo) date palm

suhtamra — (kwo) dried dates




tamrin — (kwo) exercise

tamrini (fai tamrin) — (zwo) exercise, train, practice




tana — (kwo) shelf




tange — (kwel) narrow, tight

tangitaa — (kwo) narrowness, tightness

tangifi (fa-tange) — (zwo) get narrower

tangisi (mah-tange) — (zwo) narrow, contract




tangli — (zwo) tangle, snarl

tanglika — (kwo) tangle (confused, intertwined mass)




tango — (kwo) tango




tanike — (kwel) tiny, wee

tanika — (kwo) a tiny bit

tanikem — (komo) a tiny bit

bu tanikem — (komo) not in the least, not at all, not a bit




tanka — (kwo) 1) tank (armoured vehicle)

2) tank (container for liquids)

bensin-tanka — (kwo) petrol tank




tanto — (inplas-kwanto) so much, so many, thus much, so (to such an extent)

tanto kwanto treba — as much as needed

tanto ke me jan — as far as I know

Bu gai gun tanto. — One shouldn't work so much.

Es tanto muhim. — It's so important.

tanto... kom — as (much)...as

tanto kway kom posible — as quickly as possible

bu tanto…kom — not so much…as




tapa — (kwo) spigot, tap, plug, stopper

tapi — (zwo) plug, gag




tapis — (kwo) carpet




tara — (kwo) tyre

infli tara — inflate (pump up) a tyre




taraf — (kwo) side

pa un taraf... pa otre taraf — on the one hand... on the other hand

go a taraf — move aside

pa hir-ney taraf de riva — on this side of the river

Gratuli ta fon may taraf. — Give him my congratulations.

ambi taraf konsenti — both sides (parties) agree

baktaraf — (kwo) backside




taratori — (zwo) jabber, gabble, chatter




tarde — (kwel) late, tardy

es yo muy tarde — it’s very late already

til tarde nocha — till late at night

tardem es pyu hao kem neva — better late than never

tarditaa — (kwo) lateness, tardiness; delay, late arrival

tardi, tardefai — (zwo) be late

Ant.: rane




tarif — (kwo) tariff, rate




tasa — (kwo) cup (for tea or coffee)

Pi ba un tasa chay! — Drink a cup of tea!




taska — (kwo) task

taska fo domgunsa — a task for the homework

betaski — (zwo) charge, commission

betaski koywan bay koysa — charge smb with smth




tasma — (kwo) lace, tape, braid

tasmi (fai) butas — lace up one’s boots




tatu — (kwo) tattoo (on skin)

tatui — (zwo) tattoo

tatuing — (kwo) tattooing




tau — (zwo) thaw, melt




tausian — (zwo) surrender, give up, capitulate




tavan — (kwo) ceiling




taverna — (kwo) tavern




tawa — (kwo) tower




taxi — (kwo) taxi




tay — (kwo) necktie




tayar — (kwel) ready

Ob yu es tayar fo go? — Are you ready to go?

Deyfan es tayar. — The dinner is ready.

tayartaa — (kwo) readiness, preparedness

tayari — (zwo) prepare (tr./intr.)

tayari bavul — pack a suitcase

fa-tayari, tayari swa — (zwo) make oneself ready, get ready, prepare (for smth — fo koysa)

tayari swa fo safara — get ready for a trip

tayaring — (kwo) preparing, preparation




te — (gramatika) past tense marker

Me bu jan-te om to. — I didn't know about that.




teatra — (kwo) theatre




tedi — (zwo) bore, tire, weary

se tedi me — it bores me

fa-tedi — (zwo) get bored, be bored

tedi-she — (kwel) boring, tedious




tegla — (kwo) tile, tiling




teip — (kwo) tape (adhesive, magnetic, telegraph)

See also: banda




teklif — (kwo) ceremoniousness, primness, formality

sin teklif — without ceremony

teklifi — (kwo) behave formally

Bye teklifi! — Make yourself at home!

Bu gai teklifi om sey kanalya. — One should deal shortly with this scoundrel.

noteklif-nem — (kwo) in a familiar manner, with familiarity




teknika — (kwo) technics; technique

teknike — (kwel) technical




teknologia — (kwo) technology

teknologike — (kwel) technological




tel — (kwo) wire

spikatel — (kwo) barbed wire

sintel-ney — (kwel) wireless (not having any wires)




telefon — (kwo) telephone, phone

telefoni — (zwo) telephone, phone




telegraf — (kwo) telegraph




telegraf — (kwo) telegraph

telegrafi — (zwo) telegraph

telegrafguan — (kwo) telegraph office




telegrama — (kwo) telegram, wire




teleskop — (kwo) telescope




television — (kwo) television (broadcasting system — cf. "televisor")

Shortening: TV




televisor — (kwo) television set

Shortening: TV




tem — (gramatika) (in comparisons)

kem pyu…tem pyu — the more...the more

Kem pyu lao, tem pyu stupide. — The older, the sillier.

Kem pyu, tem pyu hao. — The more, the better.

Ela bu lai ku? Tem pyu hao. — She is not coming? So much the better.

Es tem pyu surprisi-she ke ta hev mani. — It’s all the more surprising that he/she has money.




tema — (kwo) theme, topic, subject




temperatura — (kwo) temperature




temti — (zwo) tempt, entice

temti-she — (kwel) tempting, alluring, seductive

temta — (kwo) temptation

bu dukti nu inu temta — lead us not into temptation




tendon — (kwo) tendon, sinew




teni — (zwo) hold

Lu stan al teni brancha. — He stood holding a branch.

Lu stan al fa-teni pa brancha. — He stood holding on by a branch.

Fa-teni ba! — Hold on tight!

en-teni — (zwo) take hold of




tenis — (kwo) tennis




tensi — (zwo) tense, tighten, strain, stretch

tensa — (kwo) tension, strain

tensa-ney (tense) — (kwel) tense, tight

tensi-ney (tensen) — (kwel) strained




tenta — (kwo) tent

stavi tenta — put up a tent




teologia — (kwo) theology

teologier — (kwo) theologian




teoria — (kwo) theory




terasa — (kwo) terrace




terible — (kwo) terrible

Syn.: dashat-ney, foba-ney




teritoria — (kwo) territory




termin — (kwo) term (a word having a particular meaning)




teror — (kwo) terror (violence — cf. "dashat")

terorisi — (zwo) terrorize

terorista — (kwo) terrorist




tesa — (kwo) thesis (also in the meaning "dissertation")




testa — (kwo) test (trial; quiz)

testi — (zwo) test




texi — (zwo) weave

texer — (kwo) weaver

texing — (kwo) weaving

texitura — (kwo) tissue, texture (cf. "histo")

teximashina — (kwo) loom

See also: plexi




texta — (kwo) text




tfu — (exklami) ptooey




ti — (gramatika) optional marker of a noun group; optional first element of the construction ti...na

In skay gao ti blan badal floti. — In the high sky white clouds float.

Me kwesti lu om ti lu jivi na planeta. — I asked him about the planet on which he lives.

Me bu yao diskusi ti yu shwo na kwesta. — I don’t want to discuss the question that you mention.




tia — (kwo) aunt




tifus — (kwo) typhus




tigra — (kwo) tiger

tigro — (kwo) male tiger

tigrina — (kwo) tigress

yuntigra — (kwo) tiger cub




tik — (kwo) tic




tikli — (zwo) tickle

tikla — (kwo) tickle




tiktaki — (zwo) tick (emit recurring clicking sounds)

tiktaking — (kwo) ticking




til — (konekti) till, until

fon kapa til peda — from head to foot

Til aksham! — Till the evening!

Me bu jan-te se til nau. — I didn't know it until now.




tim — (kwo) team (a group organized to work or play together)




timide — (kwel) timid, bashful, shy

timidem — (komo) timidly

timidi, timidefai — (zwo) be shy, behave timidly




timshefa — (kwo) boatswain

(Origin: tim+shefa)




tin — (kwo) tin, tin plate

tin ken — tin can




tineijer — (kwo) teenager, adolescent

tineijer-yash — (kwo) adolescence




tinta — (kwo) ink




tintini — (zwo) clink, tinkle, jingle

tintini glasa kun koywan — clink glasses with smb




tinza — (kwo) arbour, pergola




tip — (kwo) type (class)

tipike — (kwel) typical




tiran — (kwo) tyrant




tiri — (zwo) draw, pull, drag

ek-tiri — (zwo) give a tug

tira — (kwo) pull, tug, draught

tiriboxa — (kwo) drawer (box)

korkatirika — (kwo) corkscrew




tirpan — (kwo) scythe

tirpani — (zwo) scythe




titan — (kwo) Titan, titan

titanike — (kwel) titanic




titanium — (kwo) titanium




titar — (kwo) partridge




titla — (kwo) title (of a book, article, person), heading

See also: subtitla




to — 1) (inplas-kwo) that, those

Se es dom, e to es auto. — This is a house, and that is a car.

To es avion, bu faula. — That is an airplane, not a bird.

Me bu jan nixa om to. — I know nothing about that.

to es — that is, i.e.

toy — (inplas-kwel) that, those

Toy kitaba bu es interes-ney. — That book is not interesting.

2) (gramatika) optional apposition marker

kota to kapter – cat the catcher

avion to fortesa – a plane that is also a fortress




toki — (zwo) talk, converse

toki kun koywan — talk to smb

toka — (kwo) conversation, talk, discourse

toknik — (kwo) conversationalist




tokon — (kwo) stump, stub

kol-tokon — cabbage stump




toleri — (zwo) tolerate, stand, bear

tolera — (kwo) toleration, tolerance

toleribile — (kwel) tolerable, bearable, endurable

notoleribile — (kwel) unbearable, intolerable

tolerishil — (kwel) tolerant, lenient

tolerishiltaa — (kwo) lenience




tolki — (zwo) interprete, expound

tolka — (kwo) interpretation




tomata — (kwo) tomato

tomata saus — tomato sauce




tompi — (zwo) stamp (step heavily), tramp, pound

tomping — (kwo) stamping, tramping

See also: topti




ton — (kwo) tone

See also: tonus




tona — (kwo) ton




tonus — (kwo) tonus, tonicity, tone




topale — (kwel) lame

topali — (zwo) limp

topaling — (kwo) limping, lameness




topti — (zwo) trample (beat down with the feet, tread destructively), tramp on, trample down




topuk — (kwo) heel (part of the foot on the backside only; the part of a shoe's sole is "kabluk")




torcha — (kwo) torch




tori — (zwo) tear, rip

austori — tear out

tori kasam (wada) — break one's oath (promise)

tora — (kwo) tear

toripes — (kwo) scrap, shred




tormenti — (zwo) torment, distress; agonize, suffer torments

tormenta — (kwo) torment, misery, distress

tormentisi — (zwo) torture, make suffer (cf. "torturi")




tornado — (kwo) tornado




torsi — (zwo) twist, wring, contort

torsi por tunga — writhe with pain




torta — (kwo) gateaux, cake (especially a rich and elaborate one filled with custard, fruit, or nuts)

tortakin — (kwo) pastry, tart




tortuga — (kwo) turtle

tortuga shel — turtle's shell




tortura — (kwo) torture (infliction of severe physical pain as a means of punishment or coercion)

torturi — (zwo) torture




toshi — (komo) too, as well, also, likewise, similarly, like or in the same way as somebody or something else (cf. "yoshi")

Me pri gani. – Me toshi. — I like to sing. – Me too.

Me bu ve go a kino. – Me toshi. — I won't go to the cinema. – Neither will I.

Me toshi wud yao safari. – Me too would like to go to a trip.

Lu toshi es hir. — He is here as well.




tote — (kwel) whole, entire

tote dey — the whole day

tota — (kwo) whole

pa tota — on the whole, altogether

totale — (kwel) total, overall

totem — (komo) wholly, entirely, completely

bu totem — not entirely, not completely




toxin — (kwo) poison, toxin, venom

toxin-ney — (kwel) poisonous, toxic, venomous

toxini — (zwo) poison, envenom

toxining — (kwo) poisoning




tra — (konekti-syao) through; over, across, to (on) the other side of

Me he vidi yu tra winda. — I saw you through the window.

Go tra gata! — Cross the street!

Nu gun om sey proyekta tra mucho yar. — We work on this project through many years.

Lu jivi tra osean. — He lives over the ocean.

tralekti — to read through (from begining to end)

tranochi — to spend the night

trasalti — skip; omit

trakusi — bite through

tra-ney — (kwel) through

tra-nem — (komo) (all the way) through




tradision — (kwo) tradition

tradision-ney — (kwel) traditional




tradukti — (zwo) translate (render in another language)

tradukta — (kwo) translation




trafik — (kwo) traffic (the passage of people or vehicles; the conveyance of messages or data)




trafugi — (zwo) defect, desert to the enemy, go over (to)

trafuger — (kwo) defector, deserter, turncoat

(Origin: tra+fugi)




tragedia — (kwo) tragedy




tragike — (kwel) tragic, tragical




trai — (zwo) try, attempt

Plis trai lerni hao. — Please try to learn well.

Bu trai juli me! — Don't attempt to swindle me!

Oli jivika on Arda trai kapti garme surya-ray. — All creatures on Earth try to catch the hot sun's rays.

traisa — (kwo) attempt, endeavour, try




trajivi — (zwo) experience, go through, live through; survive (remain alive)

Ela he trajivi mucho beda. — She has lived through many troubles.

Ta mog bu trajivi sey nocha. — He/she may not survive this night.

(Origin: tra+jivi)




traktor — (kwo) tractor




tralasi — (zwo) let through

butralasike — (kwel) impermeable, impenetrable; inscrutable




tram — (kwo) tram, tramway




trani — (zwo) drag, trail, train

fa-trani — drag oneself

tranika — (kwo) trail, train (of a dress, of a comet)




trankwile — (kwel) tranquil, placid, peaceful

trankwilitaa — (kwo) tranquility, peacefulness




transa — (kwo) trance




transferi — (zwo) transfer (convey or cause to pass from one place, person, or thing to another)

transfera — (kwo) transfer, transference




transformi — (zwo) transform (change the form, nature, or function)

transforma — (kwo) transformation




transha — (kwo) tranche




transistor — (kwo) transistor

transistor-ney resiver — a transistor receiver




transiti — (zwo) transit (also "pass over into another state")

transita — (kwo) transit, transition




transmiti — (zwo) transmit (convey, send out)

transmita — (kwo) transmission (also a broadcast)




transplanti — (zwo) transplant (med., botan.)

transplantiwat — (kwo) transplant (thing transplanted)

transplanta — (kwo) transplantation




transporta — (kwo) transport (vehicles; system of transporting)

transporti — (zwo) transport (with vehicles)

transporting — (kwo) transportation




trapa — (kwo) rag (scrap/piece of cloth)

trapas — rags, raggery




trasa — (kwo) trace, spoor, track, trail

finga trasa — fingerprints

peda trasa — footprint

lyu trasa — leave traces

sin trasa — without a trace

trasi — (zwo) trace, spoor, trail




trati — (zwo) treat (handle, deal with or behave towards); approach (an issue etc.)

trati kun respekta — treat with respect

dustrati — (zwo) ill-treat, abuse, mistreat

trata — (kwo) treatment (process or manner of treating); approach (method of dealing with)




trauma — (kwo) trauma, injury

traumi — (zwo) traumatize

trauma depatmen — (kwo) trauma department (at a hospital)




traur — (kwo) mourning

traur-ney — (kwel) mourning




travidibile — (kwel) transparent

(Origin: tra+vidi+bile)




treba — (sta) it is necessary; require

Treba zwo se olo til aksham. — It is necessary to do it all till the evening.

Es tarde, nu treba go a dom. — It is late, we must go home.

Treba pyu jen. — More people are needed/required.

Regula treba klarisa. — The rule needs clarification.

Sey kwesta treba kaulusa. — This question requires consideration.

("treba" has a wider meaning than "gai", "nidi", "mus", and can be used in most cases)




trefi — (zwo) hit, not miss; overtake, strike, befall, (med.) affect

trefi nishan — hit the target

trefi-ney (trefen) bay kula — bullet-stricken

disasta trefi-te lu — he was overtaken by disaster

sin trefi — beside the mark

shuti bu trefi — miss one’s shot

mistrefi — (zwo) miss, fail to hit

trefishil — (kwel) accurate (in shooting)

trefa — (kwo) hit (successfully executed shot or blow)

trefnik — (kwo) marksman




tremi — (zwo) tremble

ek-tremi — flinch, give a start

tremi-she vos — faltering voice

trema — (kwo) tremble, tremor

ardatrema — (kwo) earthquake (also “sisma”)

Syn.: sheiki




tren — (kwo) train (a line of connected railroad cars)

trenyuan — (kwo) conductor (in a train)




trepi — (zwo) flutter

trepi bay alas — flap the wings, flutter

trepa — (kwo) flutter, trepidation




tresor — (kwo) treasure




treta — (kwo) trait, feature




tri — (kwanto) three (3)

li tri jen — the three of them

trifen

un trifen — one third

dwa trifen — two thirds

trifenka — (kwo) third

triple — (kwel) threefold, triple

triplem — (komo) triply

trishi — thirty

tristo — three hundred

tri-ney — third

tri-nem — thirdly, in the third place




triangula — (kwo) triangle




tribu — (kwo) tribe




tribunal — (kwo) tribunal

Syn.: judiguan




tribut — (kwo) tribute

fai tribut on koywan — impose tribute on smb

pagi tribut — pay tribute




tridi — (kwo) Wednesday




triger — (kwo) trigger

trigeri — (zwo ) trigger




trimeska — (kwo) quarter (period of 3 months)

(Origin: tri+mes+(i)ka)




trimi — (zwo) trim, cut




Trinitaa — (kwo) Trinity

Trinitaa-undi — (kwo) Whit Monday




triste — (kwel) sad (sorrowful)

tristitaa — (kwo) sadness

tristefai — (zwo) be sad


Syn.: griva-ney




triumfa — (kwo) triumph

triumfa-arka — triumphal arch

triumfi — (zwo) triumph




tro — (komo) too, too much

Sey taska es tro mushkile fo me. — This task is too difficult for me.

Sey lampa bu es tro yarke. — This lamp is not too bright.

Yu gun ya tro. — You do work too much.

Es ya tro! — That's too much! That's going too far! That beats everything!

tro-ney — (kwel) excessive

fai tro, troisi — (zwo) overdo, go too far; exaggerate

troisa — (zwo) exaggeration




trofee — (kwo) trophy




tromba — (kwo) thrombus




trombon — (kwo) trombone




trompi — (zwo) deceive, mislead

fa-trompi por koysa — be mistaken by smth

trompa — (kwo) deception, deceit

Syn.: juli




tron — (kwo) throne




tronka — (kwo) trunk (of tree, of a human or animal)




tropika — (kwo) tropic

tropike — (kwel) tropic, tropical




troti — (zwo) trot (along)




truk — (kwo) trick (feat; knack, artifice; conjuring trick)

trukyuan — (kwo) conjurer, magician




trumpeta — (kwo) trumpet




trupa — (kwo) troupe; herd, flock, troop, swarm; crowd

trupas — (kwo) troops (military forces)

See also: gurta, jenmenga




tsar — (kwo) tsar (emperor of Russia)




tsunami — (kwo) tsunami




tu — (gramatika) (the infinitive particle, substantivation)

Tu samaji es tu pardoni. — To understand is to forgive.

Tu fobisi es muy fasile. — To scare, it's very easy.




tualet — (kwo) WC, lavatory, toilet (cf. "tuvalet")

tualet papir — toilet paper




tualya — (kwo) towel




tuan — (kwo) lump, clod, clot; clew, ball

volvi swa inu tuan — roll/curl (oneself) up into a ball

tuangrunta — lumpy soil

tuan in gorla — a lump in the throat




tuba — (kwo) 1) pipe, tube; barrel (of a gun)

dwa-tuba-ney banduk — double-barrelled gun

2) tuba (mus.)




tudun — (kwo) hillock, knoll, mound, tussock




tufi — (zwo) suffocate, strangle, choke, smother, stifle; drown (mask by a louder sound)

tufi shum — to stifle the noise

shum tufi suy vos — the noise drowned his voice

dus-herba tufi sereal — weeds choke the corn

tufi-she — (kwel) suffocating, choking; stifling; stuffy, close




tuh — (kwo) a piece of cloth, kerchief

avantuh — (kwo) apron

poshtuh — (kwo) handkerchief




tuhmat — (kwo) slander, calumny

tuhmati — (zwo) calumniate, slander, libel




tuhun — (komo) together (jointly; simultaneously)

tuhun kun — together with, along with

Li sempre go tuhun. — They always go together.

fai tuhun — go together

tuhun-ney — (kwel) joint, combined

Syn.: pa hunta




tuki — (zwo) knock, rap, tap

tuki pa dwar — knock at the door

ek-tuki — (zwo) give a knock/tap/rap

en-tuki — (zwo) begin to knock

tuka — (kwo) knock, rap, tap

tuking — (kwo) knocking, rapping, tapping

tuk-tuk — (exklami) rat-tat

Pelatuk tuki: tuk-tuk-tuk! — A woodpecker raps: rat-a-tat-tat!




tul — (kwo) tool, instrument




tulipa — (kwo) tulip




tuman — (kwo) fog; mist

dense tuman kovri dol — thick fog covers the valley

tumanisi — (zwo) fog, befog, haze




tume — (kwel) dark

tumitaa — (kwo) darkness

tum- — dark-:

tumgrin — dark green

tumhar-ney — dark-haired

tumderma-ney (tumderme) —dark-skinned, swarthy




tundra — (kwo) tundra




tunel — (kwo) tunnel




tunga — (kwo) pain, ache

sensa de tunga — sensation of pain

tunga-ney (tunge) — (kwel) painful, sore

tungaful — (kwel) painful, excruciating

tungi — (zwo) ache, hurt, be painful

may kapa tungi — my head aches




tupe — (kwel) blunt, dull, obtuse (also figuratively)

tupifi (fa-tupe) — (zwo) get/become blunt

tupisi (mah-tupe) — (zwo) make blunt, dull




tur — (kwo) tour; turn (turn to do smth)

Es yur tur fo jawabi. — It's your turn to answer.

pa swa-ney tur — in its turn

pa tur — by turns

turi — (zwo) tour

turista — (kwo) tourist




turan — (taim-komo) suddenly

Turan me he samaji olo. — Suddenly I understood everything.

turan-ney — (kwel) sudden




turdi — (zwo) stun

turdi-she — (kwel) stunning

turdi-she habar — a stunning piece of news




turk — (kwel, kwo) Turkish (relating to ethnicity, language or country); Turkish (person of Turkish ethnicity); Turkish language (also “turk-lingwa”)




Turkiye — (kwo) Turkey

Turkiye-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of Turkey




turni — (zwo) turn

turna — (kwo) turn

dela fai buhao turna — things have taken a turn for the worse

turning — (kwo) turning




tushi — (zwo) extinguish, quench; die out

tushing — (kwo) extinguishing, putting out; extinction, dying (away)




tuta — (kwo) thigh




tuvalet — (kwo) toilet (grooming or dressing — cf. "tualet")




tuy — (komo) immediately, at once, right away

Lu he samaji to tuy. — He got it right away.

Riva es tuy afte dom. — The river is right after the house.

tuy ke — as soon as

Tuy ke ta vidi me, ta lopi a me pa fule kwaytaa. — As soon as he saw me, he ran to me at top speed.




tuza — (kwo) hare

man-tuza (tuzo) — (kwo) male hare

gin-tuza (tuzina) — (kwo) doe-hare

yuntuza — (kwo) young hare, leveret




twarog — (kwo) curds, cottage cheese




twerde — (kwel) hard, solid

twerdi — (zwo) harden (tr./intr.)

fa-twerde (twerdifi) — (zwo) harden, become hard, coarsen

mah-twerde (twerdisi) — (zwo) harden, make hard

twerdika — (kwo) solid (not a liquid or gas); smth hard

twerditaa — (kwo) hardness, solidity




twin — (kwo) twin

twines — twins, gemini




twoli — (zwo) thresh

twoling — (kwo) threshing

twolilok — (kwo) threshing-floor

twolitul — (kwo) flail

twolimashina — (kwo) threshing machine




tyuba — (kwo) tube (a flexible container with a screw top for pastelike substances)

tyuba de dentapasta — a tube of toothpaste




udali — (zwo) remove, delete

udala, udaling — (kwo) removal, deletion




uf — (exklami) An exclamation expressing tiredness or relief, appeasement

Uf, me sta fatigi-ney! – Gosh, I am tired!

Uf, sey bao es grave! – Oh (gosh), this bag is heavy!

Uf, pa fin me es pa dom! – Oh, at last I am at home!




ugosti — (zwo) regale (entertain with food)




ugrosa — (kwo) threat, menace

ugrosi — (zwo) threaten, menace; make threatening gestures

ugrosi bay finga a koywan — shake/wag one's finger at smb




Ukraina — (kwo) Ukraine




ukrainska — (kwel, kwo) Ukrainian; Ukrainian language




ulsa — (kwo) ulcer




ultraviolete — (kwel) ultraviolet




ulu — (kwo) owl




un — (kwanto) one (1)

un afte otre — one after another

un fon zuy jamile gela — one of the most beautiful girls

un-ney — (kwel) first

arivi pa un-ney — arrive first

un-nem — (komo) firstly, in the first place; (taim-komo) at first, initially

un e haf — one and a half

unple — single, one-time

unves — (inplas-komo) once

Unves me vidi ta pa gata. — Once I saw him/her in the street.

unka — (kwo) one

fila de unka — the row of ones

Yur unka tro-simili semka. — Your ones are too like sevens.




unatma-ney (unatme) — (kwel) unanimous

unatma-nem (unatmem) — (komo) unanimously

(Origin: un+atma+ney)




undi — (kwo) Monday




une — (kwel) united, joined into a single entity

une tota — a single whole

unitaa — (kwo) unity

uni — (zwo) unite (tr./intr.)

unisa, unifa — (kwo) unification, integration

unisi-ney — (kwel) united




unida — (kwo) unit




uniforma — (kwo) uniform (distinctive outfit)




uniforme — (kwel) uniform

uniformitaa — (kwo) uniformity

uniformisi — (zwo) uniform




unike — (kwel) unique

unika — (kwo) unique




union — (kwo) union

Europa-ney union — European Union




universa — (kwo) the universe

universa-ney — (kwel) universal (of the universe), cosmic




universale — (kwel) universal (common to all; useful for many purposes)

universala — (kwo) universal




universitet — (kwo) university




unkwe — (gramatika) “-ever”

kwo unkwe lu shwo — whatever he says

kwel unkwe suy janmalingwa es — whatever his/her native language is

kwel unkwe mahta lu posesi — whatever power he possesses

a wo unkwe nu go — wherever we go

komo unkwe lu trai — however he tries




upruge — (kwel) resilient, springy




uragan — (kwo) hurricane




Uran — (kwo) Uranus




uranyum — (kwo) uranium




urba — (kwo) city, town




urina — (kwo) urine

urini — (zwo) urinate

See also: pisi




urjente — (kwel) urgent (compelling immediate action or attention, pressing)

urjensia — (kwo) urgency




urli — (zwo) purr




urna — (kwo) urn (vessel for ashes of a deceased person)

voti-urna — ballot box




USA — (kwo) USA (Unisi-ney Statas de Amerika)

USA-jen — (kwo) inhabitant/citizen of the USA




ushibi — (zwo) contuse, hurt, bruise

ushiba — (kwo) contusion, bruise




ustupi — (zwo) concede, yield, give way

ustupa — (kwo) concession

ustupishil — (kwel) compliant, yielding, pliable




utile — (kwel) useful

noutile — (kwel) useless

utilitaa — (kwo) benefit, use, good

utilisi — (zwo) make use of, utilize, avail oneself of

utilisi kasu — take occasion




utka — (kwo) duck

utkina (gin-utka) — (kwo) female duck

utko (man-utka) — (kwo) male duck, drake

yunutka — (kwo) duckling




utopia — (kwo) utopia




uupar — (konekti-komo) up, upwards

Kan uupar! — Look up!

Nu go uupar kolina. — We go up the hill.

Li go uupar sulam. — They go upstairs.

uuparen — (konekti-komo) up, at the upper part of

Lai uupar! Me es uuparen. — Come up here! I am above.

uuparen monta — at the top of the mountain

fon uuparen — from above

fa-uupar (uuparifi) — (zwo) move up, go up, rise; turn up (intr.)

mah-uupar (uuparisi) — (zwo) move up, go up, rise; turn up (tr.)




uupare — (kwel) upper, top

uupare tiriboxa — top drawer

uuparetaja — upper/top floor

zuy uupare — uppermost

uupara — (kwo) top, the upper part

uuparlok — (kwo) eminence, upland




vafla — (kwo) wafer, waffle




vagabondi — (zwo) vagabond, lead the life of a vagabond

vagabondi-she — (kwel) vagrant, strolling, nomadic

vagabonder — (kwo) vagabond, tramp, vagrant

vagabonding — (kwo) vagrancy

See also: wandi




vage — (kwel) vague, dim, indistinct




vagina — (kwo) vagina




vagon — (kwo) coach, carriage (railroad car)




vaika — (komo) at least, just; for example, say; whichever suits, if you like

Weiti ba vaika un minuta! — Won't you wait just a minute?

Ob yu mog obedi me vaika un ves? — Can you do as I tell you (at least) once?

Me bu mog desidi, ob kupi grin kamisa o rude-la. Ambi es jamile. – Bu dumi tro, kupi ba vaika rude-la. — I can’t decide, which shirt to buy: the green one or the red one. – Don’t think too much, buy for example the red one.

vaika nau — now, if you like

Lai ba vaika sedey, vaika manya. — You can come today or tomorrow, whichever suits you.




vaka — (kwo) balance, scales

pondi bay vaka — weigh with scales

Syn.: pondika




vakante — (kwel) vacant (not occupied; not filled with activity; empty)

vakansia — (kwo) vacancy




vakasion — (kwo) vacation




vaksina — (kwo) vaccine




vakue — (kwel) empty, devoid of content

fa-vakue — (zwo) become empty

mah-vakue — (zwo) make empty

vakuitaa — (kwo) emptiness

vakue-handa-ney — (kwel) empty-handed




vakum — (kwo) vacuum




val — (sta) (it) is worth

val go kan sey filma — it is worth to go see this film

(syao) "worth"

admirival — admirable

sey filma es goval — this film is worth going to see

geim es pleival — the game is worth playing

Govo valori shao, bat Bagira-ney honor es shayad koysa batalival, – Bagira shwo bay zuy mule vos. — The worth of a bull is little, but Bagheera’s honor is something that he will perhaps fight for,” said Bagheera in his gentlest voice.




valide — (kwel) valid




valor — (kwo) value (worth; importance — cf. “valu”)

valor-ney, valorful — (kwel) valuable, precious

valori — (zwo) be worth; value




valu — (kwo) value (numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed)




valza — (kwo) waltz

valzi — (zwo) waltz




vane — (kwel) vain, futile

vanem — (komo) vainly, in vain

vanitaa — (kwo) futility, vainness

vanisi — (zwo) waste, squander; thwart, bring to naught




vapor — (kwo) vapour, steam

vaporkazan — steam boiler

vapormashina — steam engine

vapori — (zwo) evaporate

vaporing — (kwo) evaporation




varia — (kwo) variation

vari — (zwo) vary

varibile — (kwel) variable




varianta — (kwo) variant




vasa — (kwo) vessel (for holding liquids); vase (as for flowers, etc.)




vaste — (kwel) vast, extensive (in all directions)

vastitaa — (kwo) vastness, vast extent, spaciousness




vata — (kwo) cotton wool; wadding




ve — (gramatika) future tense marker

me he zwo, me zwo, me ve zwo — I did, I do, I shall do




vegi — (zwo) weigh (have weight — cf. “pondi”)

it vegi dwa kilo — it weighs two kilos

vega — (kwo) weight




vena — (kwo) vein (anat. — cf. «jila»)




vendi — (zwo) sell, vend

venda, vending — (kwo) sale, selling

vendi-gina — (kwo) saleswoman




venji — (zwo) revenge, revenge oneself, avenge (on smb — a koywan)

venja — (kwo) revenge, vengeance

venjishil — (kwel) vindictive, revengeful




Venus — (kwo) Venus




ver — (kwel) true, consistent with fact or reality (a short form of “vere”)

indeed, true, really

Es ver. — That’s true.

Bu es ver. — It isn’t true.

Ela es jamile, bu ver? — Ver. — She is beautiful, isn't she? — Yes, she is.

Es ver ke ela es jamile. — It’s true that she is beautiful.

Ver ku? — Really?

Ver ya! — Exactly! That’s it!




veranda — (kwo) veranda




vere — (kwel) true (correct; veritable, genuine, real)

verem — (komo) truly, genuinely, indeed, really

veritaa — (kwo) truth, verity




verguy — (kwel) precious

verguyka — (kwo) precious thing

(Origin: ver+guy)




verifiki — (zwo) verify

verifika — (kwo) verification




versa — (kwo) verse (in poetry, also of Bible)




version — (kwo) version




versu — (konekti) toward, towards

Wo es dom? Versu westa. — Where is home? It's to the west.

Elay senta versu lu bu he shanji. — Her feelings towards him have not changed.

Versu sabah morba-ney jen en-sta pyu hao. — Towards evening the sick man felt himself better.




vertebra — (kwo) vertebra




vertiga — (kwo) giddiness, dizziness, vertigo

hev vertiga — to be dizzy




vertikale — (kwel) vertical

vertikala — (kwo) vertical




ves — (kwo) time (an instance or occurrence)

al un-ney ves — at the first time

mucho ves per dey — many times a day

kada ves yu zwo same galta — every time you make the same error

pa sey ves — this time

dwa ves dwa es char — twice two makes four

yoshi un ves — once again

pa un ves — at once, at the same time

pa nove ves (pa novves) — anew

otreves — (komo) another time, some other time

laives — (komo) next time

koyves — (komo) sometimes, at times, occasionally

unves — (komo) once




vesna — (kwo) spring (season)

pa vesna — in spring

fa-vesna — the spring is coming




vespa — (kwo) wasp




vestibul — (kwo) vestibule, lobby, antechamber, entrance hall




veteran — (kwo) veteran




vexi — (zwo) vex, annoy, iritate; become irritated

fa-vexi — (zwo) become irritated

vexa — (kwo) vexation, annoyance

vexishil — (kwel) irritable




via — (konekti) via (passing through, by way/means of)

a London via Paris — to London via Paris

via radio — via radio

May gin-visin sempre shwo mucho. Me en-jan oli habar via ela. — My female neighbour always speaks a lot. I learn all the news through her.




vibri — (zwo) vibrate

vibra — (kwo) vibration




video — (kwo, kwel) video

rekordi video — record video




vidi — (zwo) see

vida — (kwo) sight, vision, view (ability to see, act of seeing, smth seen)

vidiwat — (kwo) view, spectacle, smth seen

vidimogsa — (kwo) vision (ability to see)

vidisens — (kwo) the sense/organ of sight

vidipunta — (kwo) point of view, standpoint

vidike — (kwel) visual

vidibile — (kwel) visible, which can be seen

vidi-ney — (kwel) seen, visible

vidi-nem — (komo) in visible manner, visibly, apparently

fa-vidi — (zwo) be seen, be visible

shulin fa-vidi in dalitaa — a forest could be seen in the distance

ek-vidi — (zwo) catch a glimpse of

rividi — (zwo) see again

Til rividi! — See you later!




vigor — (kwo) vigor (exuberant and resiliant strength of body or mind, vitality)

vigorful — (kwel) vigorous

vigorisi — (zwo) invigorate




vigyan — (kwo) science

vigyan(-ney) — (kwel) scientific

vigyaner — (kwo) scientist




vije — (kwel) sprightly, vivacious, brisk, zestful, cheerful, bright




vikar — (kwo) vicar




vikla — (kwo) vehicle (any means of transport; (fig.) a means of transmitting)




viktima — (kwo) victim




vilaja — (kwo) village




vin — (kwo) vine, grape

vingrapa — bunch of grapes

vinjus — grape juice

vinberi — grape (grape berries)

vinberinka — one grape berry




vinegra — (kwo) vinegar




vino — (kwo) wine

suhe vino — dry wine

rude vino — red wine




vinta — (kwo) screw; screw propeller

vinti — (zwo) screw

devinti — (zwo) unscrew (tr.)

fa-devinti — (zwo) come unscrewed

vintitul — (kwo) screwdriver




viola — (kwo) viol




violati — (zwo) violate (infringe, transgress, break (a law) — cf. “violensi”)

violata — (kwo) violation, infringement, breach




violensi — (zwo) use/do violence, violate (rape, assault sexually)

violensa — (kwo) violence

violensa-ney (violense) — (kwel) violent (having to do with violence)




violeta — (kwo) violet (plant)

trikolor-violeta — (kwo) heartsease




violete — (kwel) violet, purple




vipera — (kwo) adder, viper




virga — (kwo) virgin

virga-ney (virge) — (kwel) virgin

virge shulin — virgin forest




virti — (zwo) whirl

virti-mixi ovos kun milka — stir up the eggs with the milk

akwavirta — (kwo) whirlpool, vortex

virtifeng — (kwo) whirlwind




virulente — (kwel) virulent




virus — (kwo) virus




visa — (kwo) visa




vise- — (syao) vice-

vise-rega — viceroy




visin — (kwo) neighbour

visin-ney — (kwel) neighbouring

gin-visin — (kwo) neighbour woman

visintaa — (kwo) neighbourhood, vicinity




visiti — (zwo) visit

visita — (kwo) visit

visiter — (kwo) visitor, guest




viskose — (kwel) viscous, viscid




visok — (kwo) temple (part of head)




viti — (zwo) twine (encircle or coil around, esp. about vines; go in a winding course (Syn.: serpi))

barana bin viti-ney bay grinka — the fence was twined with greenery

ruchey kel viti tra shulin — a stream twining through the forest

vitiplanta — (kwo) vine, twiner, climber




viva — (exklami) long live!




vodka — (kwo) vodka




vokala — (kwo) vowel




vokasion — (kwo) vocation, calling




voki — (zwo) call, summon, ask to come

oni voki lu a telefon — they called him to the telephone

ela voki helpa — she called for help

voka — (kwo) call, summons




voleibol — (kwo) volleyball




voli — (zwo) will, exercise volition

voli-shem — (komo) voluntarily

voler — (kwo) volunteer

vola — (kwo) will, volition

vola-forsa — strength of will

sin vola — involuntarily, unwittingly

sinvola-ney (sinvole) — (kwel) involuntary

sinvolem — (komo) involuntarily, unwittingly




volta — (kwo) volt (unit of measure)

sto volta — one hundred volts

shi kilovolta — ten kilovolts

sit-volta-ney lampa — a six volt lamp




volum — (kwo) volume

segun ke presa fa-syao, volum fa-gran — volume increases as the pressure decreases




volupta — (kwo) voluptuousness

volupta-ney (volupte) — (kwel) voluptuous




volvi — (zwo) roll (up), form into spherical or cylindrical body, curl up, coil up

volvi-ney serpenta — a coiled serpent

volvi swa inu tuan — roll oneself up into a ball

devolvi — (zwo) unroll, uncurl




vomi — (zwo) vomit

voma — (kwo) vomit




vos — (kwo) voice (cf. "vota")

laute vos — loud voice

un-vos-nem — unanimously




vota — (kwo) vote (expression of preference)

maiste vota — majority of votes

voti — (zwo) vote

voting — (kwo) voting, poll, vote




vual — (kwo) veil




vulgare — (kwo) vulgar, smutty




vulkan — (kwo) volcano

vulkanike — (kwel) volcanic




vulva — (kwo) vulva




wadi — (zwo) promise

wada — (kwo) promise




wahta — (kwo) watch (the post or period of duty of a guard, sentinel, or watcher)

wahti — (zwo) watch (keep a watchful eye on; guard)

wahti kinda — watch the kids

Wahti ba may bavul idyen, me lai tuy. — Watch my suitcase, I’ll be back in a minute.

wahting — (kwo) watch (act or process)

wahter — (kwo) sentinel, watchman




waipi — (zwo) wipe, dry




walaa — (exklami) here is/are

Walaa nu! — Here we are!




wan — (inplas-kwo) an individual, one

pyan wan — (someone who is) drunk

Wan kel jan, ta bu shwo. – He who knows, he doesn’t speak (the one who knows, doesn’t speak)

koywan — someone

nulwan — nobody

eniwan — anybody, anyone, any (person)

kadawan — everyone




wandi — (zwo) wander, roam, ramble

wanda — (kwo) wander, ramble, roam, travel, excursion




wanga — (kwo) cheek (the fleshy part of either side of the face)

wangaruda — (kwo) redness in one’s cheeks, (high) colour, flush, blush

wanga-osta — (kwo) cheek-bone

wanga-har — (kwo) whiskers, sidewhiskers




warme — (kwel) warm

warmifi (fa-warme) — (zwo) get warm, warm up, grow warm

warmisi (mah-warme) — (zwo) warm, make warm

warmish — (kwel) lukewarm, tepid

warmitaa — (kwo) warmth

trawarmi — (zwo) warm through




warni — (zwo) warn (om koysa — of smth)

warna — (kwo) warning




wat — (kwo) watt

sto wat — one hundred watts

tri megawat — three megawatts




watwat — (kwo) bat (flying mammal)




wau — (exklami) wow (expresses excitement or amazement)




wauki — (zwo) bark (about dogs)

wauka — (kwo) bark, barking, bay, yap




waxa — (kwo) wax (but not cerumen — cf. “aurganda”)




way — (kwesti) why

Way yu bu jawabi? — Why don’t you answer?

waynik — (kwo) why-boy, why-girl




web — (kwo) the World Wide Web




weba — (kwo) web (cobweb)

webi — (zwo) web

weben bay dine hema-vasa — webbed by thin blood vessels




weiti — (zwo) wait, wait for

weiti ba til ke me lai — wait until I come

weiti-pai koysa — obtain smth by waiting, live to see a time when

longem-weiten — long-awaited

weita, weiting — (kwo) waiting, wait

weitisala — (kwo) waiting room




wek — 1) (loko-komo) away, off

Go wek! — Go away!

May tren es yo wek. — My train is away already.

mah-wek — (zwo) get rid of, do away with, expel, drive away

fa-wek — (zwo) vanish

2) (exklami) “Start! Go!”

Un, dwa, tri, wek! — One, two, three, go!

wekika — (kwo) refuse, waste, trash




wekgoni — (zwo) chase away, drive away




weklansi — (zwo) throw away, throw out




weklasi — (zwo) let go, let off, release

(Origin: wek+lasi)




weksheiki — (zwo) shake off (remove by shaking)




wektaimi — (zwo) become outdated, obsolete

wektaimi-ney (wektaimen) — (kwel) outdated, obsolete

(Origin: wek+taim+i)




wekturni — (zwo) turn away (avert)




wel — (exklami) well, now then

Wel, e poy? – Well, what next?

Wel, wel... me bu jan kwo shwo. — Well, well... I don't know what to say.




wen — (kwesti) when

Wen yu lai? — When are you coming?




westa — (kwo) west

westa(-ney) — (kwel) west(ern), westerly; occidental

weste feng — west wind

westen — (konekti-komo) to the west, west of

urba es westen — the town is to the west

westen urba ye shulin — forest is west of the town




widuwa — (kwo) widow/widower

widuwo — (kwo) widower

widuwina — (kwo) widow




wik — (kwo) week

kada wik — every week

lai-she wik — next week

wikfin — weekend




winda — (kwo) window

windakin — (kwo) small window; small opening window pane

winda-planka — (kwo) windowsill




wisli — (zwo) whistle

wisla — (kwo) whistle (act; sound)

wislika — (kwo) whistle (device)




wit — (kwo) wheat

witfarina — wheat flour




wo — (kwesti) where

Wo yu es? Me bu vidi yu. — Where are you? I don't see you.

a wo — where, which way

A wo yu go? — Where are you going?

fon wo — where from

Fon wo yu go? — Where are you going from?




wolba — (kwo) vault




worda — (kwo) word

pa otre worda — in other words

wordi — (zwo) word

wordamenga — (kwo) verbiage, verbosity




woshi — (zwo) wash

woshi bartan — wash up (to clean the utensils, dishes etc.)

woshi swa — (zwo) wash oneself

woshing — (kwo) wash, washing, laundering; ablution

woshi-mashina, wosher — (kwo) washing machine, washer

woshi-stanka — (kwo) washstand




wud — (gramatika) «would» (conditional marker)

me wud yao — I’d like to

ta wud zwo to si ta wud mog — he/she would do it if he/she could

(May be shortened to 'd: Me'd yao. = Me wud yao.)




wulfa — (kwo) wolf

wulfa wuli an luna — wolf howls at the moon

wulfo — (kwo) he-wolf

wulfina — (kwo) she-wolf

yunwulfa — (kwo) wolf cub




wuli — (zwo) howl

wula — (kwo) howl




wundi — (zwo) wound, injure

wunda — (kwo) wound, injury

wundibile — (kwel) vulnerable




wurma — (kwo) worm




wuya — (kwo) crow (bird)




xilofon — (kwo) xylophone




ya — 1) (exklami) yes

oo ya! — oh yes!

ya-ney — (kwel) affirmative

2) (gramatika) "you see", "really" (emphatic particle)

Ela es ya muy jamile. – She is so beautiful.

Me es ya rega! – I am the king, after all!

Lu es ya experta. — He is an expert, you see.

Yu jan ya ke me bu pri fish. – But you know that I don't like fish.

Ya munda es gro-jamile! – What a beautiful world!

Es ya gro-gao baum! – This tree is so big!




yabla — (kwo) apple




yak — (kwo) yak




yama — (kwo) pit (a hole in the ground); cavity

ta he kavi un yama — he/she dug a pit

yamakin — (kwo) dimple




yan — (kwo) sheep

man-yan — (kwo) ram

gin-yan — (kwo) ewe

yunyan — (kwo) lamb

yanmasu — (kwo) mutton

yangurta — (kwo) herd of sheep




yanmay — (kwo) oats




yanza — (kwo) swallow (bird)




yao — (sta) want, wish (cf. “tamani”)

Kwo yu yao? — What do you want?

Me yao aiskrem. — I want ice-cream.

Me wud yao safari kun yu. — I would like to go to the trip with you.

sin yao, sin yaosa — unwillingly

al yao — at will

yaosa — (kwo) desire, wish

yao-shem — (komo) willingly

noyao-shem — (komo) unwillingly, reluctantly




yar — (kwo) year

Hao nove yar! — Happy New Year!

muchoyar-ney — (kwel) multiyear

yar-ney, kadayar-ney — (kwel) annual, yearly

yardey — (kwo) anniversary




yarda — (kwo) yard (unit of length or volume)




yarke — (kwel) bright; vivid

yarke sonja — vivid dream

yarkem — (komo) brightly; vividly

yarkitaa — (kwo) brightness; vividness




yaruga — (kwo) ravine




yasen — (kwo) ash-tree




yash — (kwo) age (stage/time or duration of life)

zuy yash-ney brata — senior brother

yashi — (zwo) age (intr.)

yashing — (kwo) ageing

yashi-ney (yashen) — (kwel) aged, elderly




yashma — (kwo) jasper




yasmin — (kwo) jasmine




yatima — (kwo) orphan




ye — (gramatika) there is/are, available (cf. "yok")

Hir ye mucho flor. — There is a lot of flowers here.

Mani ye? — Is there any money available? Do you have money?

Kwo ye? — What's up? What is the matter?

Bu ye toy yash. — No longer of that age.




yedoh — (komo) however, nevertheless, yet




yel — (kwo) spruce




yema — (kwo) bud, gemma




yen — (gramatika) «-ing» (verbal adverb marker)

Lu zai sidi kan-yen ela e audi-yen to ke ela shwo. — He is sitting looking at her and listening to what she says.




yeri — (taim-komo) yesterday

Yeri me bu lekti, me lekti manya. — I didn't read yesterday, I shall read tomorrow.

preyeri — (taim-komo) the day before yesterday




yeroshi — (zwo) tousle, dishevel, ruffle

yeroshi-ney — dishevelled, tousled




yo — (taim-komo) already

Me es yo pa dom. — I am already at home.

Se bin klare yo yeri. — It's been clear already yesterday.




yoda — (kwo) iodine




yogur — (kwo) yoghurt




yoja — (kwo) hedgehog (small mammal with spiny back)




yok — (gramatika) there is no, not available, no (cf. "ye")

Oni bu mog buli makaron: kukipot yok, agni yok; pa fakta, makaron toshi yok. — One can't boil macaroni: there is no saucepan, no fire; in fact, there is no macaroni either.

Problema yok! — No problem!

fa-yok — (zwo) disappear, vanish

yoksa — (kwo) absence, lack

mani-yoksa — want of money, penury




yoksuni — (zwo) deprive, bereave

yoksuni koywan de koysa — bereave smb of smth

fa-yoksuni — (zwo) lose, be deprived

fa-yoksuni de koysa — lose/be deprived of smth

yoksuna — (kwo) deprivation




yorsi — (zwo) fidget, move restlessly




yoshi — (komo) in addition, also, moreover (cf. "toshi")

Me pri gani e dansi. Yoshi me pri rasmi. — I like to sing and dance. Also I like to draw.

Yoshi treba shwo ke... — Also, one should say that...

Yu mog lekti e yoshi kan pikturas. — You can read and also look at the pictures.

yoshi pyu — still more

yoshi pyu gao — still/even higher

yoshi un ves — once again

Yoshi! — Oh yes, by the way!




yota — (kwo) iota, jot




yu — (inplas-kwo) you (sg., pl.)

Me inviti yu oli. — I invite all of you.

yu-ney, yur — (inplas-kwel) your (sg., pl.)

Walaa yur kalam. — Here is your pen.

Sey kalam es yu-ney, bu lu-ney. — This pen is yours, not his.




yuan — (kwo) member (a part of a whole; one who belongs to a group or organization — cf. "memba"); employee, worker, staff member

yuantot — (kwo) personnel

(syao) « member of»; «staff member performing a function connected with»

armeeyuan — (kwo) military man, serviceman

bankayuan — (kwo) bank clerk

domyuan — (kwo) member of household

dwaryuan — (kwo) doorkeeper, doorman

gardiyuan — (kwo) guard (a person who guards)

gasyuan — (kwo) gasman

kafeeyuan — (kwo) coffee house worker

partiayuan — (kwo) party member

polisyuan — (kwo) policeman

preiyuan — (kwo) priest

radioyuan — (kwo) radio/wireless operator

trenyuan — (kwo) conductor (in a train)

ko-yuan — (kwo) fellow member, fellow worker




yubila — (kwo) jubilee, anniversary

yubiler — (kwo) person whose anniversary / jubilee is celebrated




yul — (kwo) Yule




yuli — (kwo) July (also mes-sem)




yuma — (kwo) humour

yuma senta — sense of humour

yumanik — (kwo) humourist

yuma-rakonta — (kwo) humorous story




yunda — (kwo) (smoothing) iron

yundi — (zwo) iron, press




yunge — (kwel) young

yungitaa — (kwo) youth (period, condition or quality)

yunga — (kwo) young man/woman

yungo — (kwo) young man

yungina — (kwo) young woman

yunge jenta — (kwo) young people, youth

yungifi (fa-yunge) — (zwo) become younger

yungisi (mah-yunge) — (zwo) make (look) younger




yuni — (kwo) June (also mes-sit)




yur — (inplas-kwel) your (sg., pl.)




yurta — (kwo) yurta, yurt, ger




yus — (komo) just (precisely, exactly)

yus kontra-nem — just the other way round

yus tanto kwanto treba — just as much as needed

yus to ke me nidi — just what I need

yus pa sey plasa — at this very place

(gramatika) «just, only a moment ago» (immediate past marker)

Lu yus he lopi wek. — He has just run away.




yusi — (zwo) use (put into service, apply, exploit)

hao-yusi-ke — handy

yusa, yusing — (kwo) use, usage, application

yuser — (kwo) user

yusibile — (kwel) usable

yusi-ney (yusen) — (kwel) used; second-hand




yuwel — (kwo) jewel, gem, precious stone

yuwelka — (kwo) jewel (piece of jewellery)

yuweler — (kwo) jeweller

yuwelguan — (kwo) jeweller's




zai — (gramatika) «be doing» (progressive tense marker)

Bu distrakti me: me zai gun. — Don't distract me: I am working.




zaruu — (komo) without fail, certainly




zebra — (kwo) zebra




zen — (kwo) Zen




zian — (kwo) sword

ziandan — (kwo) scabbard, sheath




zide — (kwel) pertinacious, stubborn, obstinate




zigzaga — (kwo) zigzag

zigzagi — (zwo) zigzag




zin — (zwo) enter, go in, come into; join, matriculate

zin shamba — enter the room

zin kluba — join a club

zin tren — board a train

zin bus — get on a bus

zinsa — (kwo) entry, entrance

zindwar e chudwar — entrance door and exit door




zink — (kwo) zinc

zinki — (zwo) zinc

zinking — (kwo) zincing




zipi — (zwo) zip (fasten by zipper)

ziper — (kwo) zipper




zitay — (kwo) bearing, demeanor




zodiak — (kwo) zodiac

zodiak signa — signs of the zodiac




zona — (kwo) zone (area, region)




zoo — (kwo; syao) zoo

zoologia — (kwo) zoology




zudi — (zwo) itch

zuda — (kwo) itch




zumbi — (zwo) buzz, hum, drone; whizz




zun — (zwo) concern oneself with, give one’s time to, devote oneself to, occupy oneself

ta zun musika — she occupies herself with music, she goes in for music

nu zun sey problema yo dwa yar — we concern ourselves with this problem for two years already

zunsa — (kwo) occupation (activity)




zuy — (gramatika-komo) most; most of all

Ela es zuy jamile. — She is the most beautiful.

Ela gani zuy hao. — She sings best.

Me pri ela zuy. — I like her most of all.

zuy-ney — (kwel) utmost




zwo — (zwo) do, make

Treba zwo to. — It is necessary to do that.

Zwo ba! — Do!

Me bu ve zwo to. — I won't do that.

Me zai zwo to. — I am doing it.

Sey gunsa gei zwo. — This work is being done.

Me he yo zwo to. — I have already done it.

Olo es yo zwo-ney. — Everything is already done.

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